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During the trial, LaRouche's defense attorney attempted to demonstrate the Frankfurt School roots of the prosecution's conspiracy theory, but he was overruled by Judge Albert Bryan, Jr.

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In , Frankfurt traders established a system of exchange rates for the various currencies that were circulating to prevent cheating and extortion. Therein lay the early roots for the Frankfurt Stock Exchange. Frankfurt managed to remain neutral during the Thirty Years' War , but suffered from the bubonic plague that refugees brought to the city. After the war, Frankfurt regained its wealth. Following the French Revolution , Frankfurt was occupied or bombarded several times by French troops.

This meant that Frankfurt was incorporated into the confederation of the Rhine. In , Dalberg adopted the title of a Grand Duke of Frankfurt. The Grand Duchy remained a short episode lasting from to , when the military tide turned in favour of the Anglo-Prussian lead allies that overturned the Napoleonic order. After Napoleon's final defeat and abdication, the Congress of Vienna — dissolved the grand-duchy and Frankfurt became a fully sovereign city state with a republican form of government.

Frankfurt entered the newly founded German Confederation till as a free city, becoming the seat of its Bundestag , the confederal parliament where the nominally presiding Habsburg Emperor of Austria was represented by an Austrian "presidential envoy". After the ill-fated revolution of , Frankfurt was the seat of the first democratically elected German parliament, the Frankfurt Parliament , which met in the Frankfurter Paulskirche St.

Paul's Church and was opened on 18 May The institution failed in when the Prussian king declared that he would not accept "a crown from the gutter". In the year of its existence, the assembly developed a common constitution for a unified Germany, with the Prussian king as its monarch.

Frankfurt lost its independence after the Austro-Prussian War in when Prussia annexed several smaller states, among them the Free City of Frankfurt. Frankfurt had stayed neutral in the war, [ citation needed ] but its free press bothered the Prussians and they used the opportunity to occupy the city by force: Bismarck had been an ambassador to the German Confederation there and constantly quarrelled with the local press.

The Prussian administration incorporated Frankfurt into its province of Hesse-Nassau. The Prussian occupation and annexation was perceived as a great injustice in Frankfurt, which retained its distinct western European, urban and cosmopolitan character.

The formerly independent towns of Bornheim and Bockenheim were incorporated in This marked the only civic foundation of a university in Germany; today it is one of Germany's largest. From 6 April to 17 May , following military intervention to put down the Ruhr uprising , Frankfurt was occupied by French troops. During the Nazi era , the synagogues of the city were destroyed. Frankfurt was severely bombed in World War II — About 5, residents were killed during the raids, and the once-famous medieval city centre , by that time the largest in Germany, was almost completely destroyed.

It became a ground battlefield on 26 March , when the Allied advance into Germany was forced to take the city in contested urban combat that included a river assault. The 5th Infantry Division and the 6th Armored Division of the United States Army captured Frankfurt after several days of intense fighting, and it was declared largely secure on 29 March After the end of the war, Frankfurt became a part of the newly founded state of Hesse, consisting of the old Hesse- Darmstadt and the Prussian Hesse provinces.

The city was part of the American Zone of Occupation of Germany. Frankfurt was the original choice for the provisional capital city of the newly founded state of West Germany in The city constructed a parliament building that was never used for its intended purpose it housed the radio studios of Hessischer Rundfunk. In the end, Konrad Adenauer , the first postwar Chancellor , preferred the town of Bonn , for the most part because it was close to his hometown, but also because many other prominent politicians opposed the choice of Frankfurt out of concern that Frankfurt would be accepted as the permanent capital, thereby weakening the West German population's support for a reunification with East Germany and the eventual return of the capital to Berlin.

Postwar reconstruction took place in a sometimes simple modern style, thus changing Frankfurt's architectural face. A few landmark buildings were reconstructed historically, albeit in a simplified manner e. Paul's Church , and Goethe House. The collection of historically significant Cairo Genizah documents of the Municipal Library was destroyed by the bombing.

According to Arabist and Genizah scholar S. Goitein , "not even handlists indicating its contents have survived. The end of the war marked Frankfurt's comeback as Germany's leading financial centre, mainly because Berlin, now a city divided into four sectors , could no longer rival it. In , the allies founded the Bank deutscher Länder , the forerunner of Deutsche Bundesbank. Following this decision, more financial institutions were re-established, e.

Deutsche Bank and Dresdner Bank. In the s, Frankfurt Stock Exchange regained its position as the country's leading stock exchange. Frankfurt also re-emerged as Germany's transportation centre and Frankfurt Airport became Europe's second-busiest airport behind London Heathrow Airport in During the s, the city created one of Europe's most efficient underground transportation systems. It is the largest city in the federated state of Hesse in the south-western part of Germany.

Frankfurt is located on both sides of the Main River , south-east of the Taunus mountain range. The southern part of the city contains the Frankfurt City Forest , Germany's largest city forest. The city area is The city centre is north of the River Main in Altstadt district the historical centre and the surrounding Innenstadt district. The geographical centre is in Bockenheim district near Frankfurt West station.

Frankfurt is the centre of the densely populated Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region with a population of 5. The city is divided into 46 city districts Stadtteile , which are in turn divided into city boroughs Stadtbezirke and electoral districts Wahlbezirke. The 46 city districts combine into 16 area districts Ortsbezirke , which each have a district committee and chairperson. The largest city district by population and area is Sachsenhausen , while the smallest is Altstadt , Frankfurt's historical center.

Three larger city districts Sachsenhausen, Westend and Nordend are divided for administrative purposes into a northern -Nord and a southern -Süd part, respectively a western -West and an eastern -Ost part, but are generally considered as one city district which is why often only 43 city districts are mentioned, even on the City's official website.

Some larger housing areas are often falsely called city districts, even by locals, like Nordweststadt part of Niederursel , Heddernheim and Praunheim , Goldstein part of Schwanheim , Riedberg part of Kalbach-Riedberg and Europaviertel part of Gallus. The Bankenviertel banking district , Frankfurt's financial district, is also not an administrative city district it covers parts of the western Innenstadt district, the southern Westend district and the eastern Bahnhofsviertel district.

Many city districts are incorporated suburbs Vororte , or were previously independent cities, such as Höchst. Some like Nordend and Westend arose during the rapid growth of the city in the Gründerzeit following the Unification of Germany , while others were formed from territory which previously belonged to other city district s , such as Dornbusch and Riederwald.

Until the year the city's territory consisted of the present-day inner-city districts of Altstadt , Innenstadt , Bahnhofsviertel , Gutleutviertel , Gallus , Westend , Nordend , Ostend and Sachsenhausen.

Bornheim was part of an administrative district called Landkreis Frankfurt , before becoming part of the city on 1 January , followed by Bockenheim on 1 April Seckbach , Niederrad and Oberrad followed on 1 July In the same year a new city district, Riederwald , was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Seckbach and Ostend. Simultaneously the Landkreis Höchst was dispersed with its member cities either joining Frankfurt Fechenheim , Griesheim , Nied , Schwanheim , Sossenheim or joining the newly established Landkreis of Main-Taunus-Kreis.

Dornbusch became a city district in It was created on territory that had formerly belonged to Eckenheim and Ginnheim. Bergen-Enkheim was the last suburb to become part of Frankfurt on 1 January Flughafen became an official city district in It covers the area of Frankfurt Airport that had belonged to Sachsenhausen and the neighbouring city of Mörfelden-Walldorf.

Frankfurt's youngest city district is Frankfurter Berg. It was part of Bonames until Kalbach was officially renamed Kalbach-Riedberg in because of the large residential housing development in the area known as Riedberg. Together with these towns and some larger nearby towns, e. The urban area had an estimated population of 2. Frankfurt has a temperate - oceanic climate Köppen: Its average annual temperature is With a population of , within its administrative boundaries [23] and of 2,, in the actual urban area , [4] Frankfurt is the fifth largest city in Germany after Berlin , Hamburg, Munich and Cologne.

With , residents in , it was the ninth largest city in Germany and the number of inhabitants grew to , before World War II. After the war, at the end of the year , the number had dropped to , In the following years the population grew again and reached an all-time-high of , in It dropped again to , in but has increased since then. According to the demographic forecasts for central Frankfurt, the city will have a population up to , within its administrative boundaries in and more than 2.

During the s the state government of Hesse wanted to include the entire urban area into its administrative boundaries. This would have made Frankfurt officially the second largest city in Germany after Berlin with up to 3 million inhabitants.

According to data from the city register of residents , For the first time a majority of the city residents had a partial non-German background. The city is considered a multicultural city because it is home to people of more than nationalities.

Frankfurt was historically a Protestant -dominated city. However, during the 19th century an increasing number of Catholics moved there. The Jewish community has a history dating back to Medieval times and has always ranked among the largest in Germany.

Two synagogues operate there. Due to the growing immigration of people from Muslim countries beginning in the s, Frankfurt has a large Muslim community. The Ahmadiyya Noor Mosque , constructed in , is the city's largest mosque and the third largest in Germany. As of [update] the largest Christian denominations were Roman Catholicism Frankfurt is one of five independent district-free cities kreisfreie Städte in Hesse , which means that it does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity, in this case it is not part of a Landkreis.

The other four cities are the second to fifth largest cities in Hesse: Wiesbaden , Kassel , Darmstadt and Offenbach am Main. A kreisfreie Stadt has territorial sovereignty within its defined city limits. Frankfurt is twinned with:. Partnerships and city friendships are a weaker form of cooperation than the sister city relationship, acting more like a fixed-term cooperation or limited to certain projects. Frankfurt has partnerships with the following cities:. Römer , the German word for Roman , is a complex of nine houses that form the Frankfurt city hall Rathaus.

The houses were acquired by the city council in from a wealthy merchant family. The middle house became the city hall and was later connected with its neighbours. The Kaisersaal "Emperor's Hall" is located on the upper floor and is where the newly crowned emperors held their banquets. The surrounding square, the Römerberg, is named after the city hall. The former Altstadt old town quarter between the Römer and the Frankfurt Cathedral was to be redeveloped as the Dom-Römer Quarter through , including reconstructions of historical buildings that were destroyed during World War II.

Frankfurt Cathedral Frankfurter Dom is not a cathedral, but the main Catholic church, dedicated to St. The Gothic building was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time.

From onwards, kings of the Holy Roman Empire were elected in this church, and from to , Roman-German emperors were crowned there. Since the 18th century, St. Bartholomew's has been called Dom , although it was never a bishop's seat.

In it was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in its present style. It was again partially destroyed in World War II and rebuilt in the s. Its height is 95 meters. The cathedral tower has a viewing platform open to the public at a height of 66 meters, accessed through a narrow spiral staircase with steps. Paul's Church Paulskirche is a national historic monument in Germany because it was the seat of the first democratically elected parliament in It was established in as a Protestant church, but was not completed until The attempt failed because the monarchs of Prussia and Austria did not want to lose power.

In Prussian troops ended the democratic experiment by force and the parliament dissolved. Afterwards, the building was used for church services again.

Paul's was partially destroyed in World War II, particularly its interior, which now has a modern appearance. It was quickly and symbolically rebuilt after the war; today it is used mainly for exhibitions and events. The Archaeological Garden contains small parts of the oldest recovered buildings: The garden is located between the Römerberg and the Cathedral. It was discovered after World War II when the area was heavily bombed and later partly rebuilt. The remains were preserved and are now open to the public.

There are plans underway to construct a building on top of the garden but anyhow it is decided that the garden will stay open to the public. Wertheim House is the only timbered house in the Altstadt district that survived the heavy bombings of World War II undamaged. It is located on the Römerberg next to the Historical Museum. The Saalhof is the oldest conserved building in the Altstadt district and dates to the 12th century.

It was used as an exhibition hall by Dutch clothiers when trade fairs were held during the 14th and 15th century. Today it serves as a part of the Historical Museum. It was built in and was the second bridge to cross the river. Today some 10, people cross the bridge on a daily basis. The Alte Oper is a former opera house , hence the name "Old Opera". The opera house was built in by architect Richard Lucae.

Until the late s, it was a ruin, nicknamed "Germany's most beautiful ruin". Later on, Arndt said he never had meant his suggestion seriously. Public pressure led to its refurbishment and reopening in Today, it functions as a famous concert hall, while operas are performed at the "new" Frankfurt Opera. The inscription on the frieze of the Alte Oper says: The Eschenheim Tower Eschenheimer Turm was erected at the beginning of the 15th century and served as a city gate as part of late-medieval fortifications.

It is the oldest and most unaltered building in the Innenstadt district. Catherine's Church Katharinenkirche is the largest Protestant church, dedicated to Catherine of Alexandria , a martyred early Christian saint.

It is located in the city centre at the entrance to the Zeil, the central pedestrian shopping street. Although today Hauptwache is mostly associated with the inner-city underground train station of the same name , the name originates from a baroque building on the square above the station.

The Hauptwache building was constructed in and was used as a prison, therefore the name that translates as "main guard-house". Today the square surrounding the building is also called "Hauptwache" formal: It is situated in the city centre opposite to St. Frankfurt Central Station Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof , which opened in , was built as the central train station for Frankfurt to replace three smaller train stations in the city centre and to boost the needed capacity for travellers.

It was constructed as a terminus station and was the largest train station in Europe by floor area until when Leipzig Central Station was opened. Its three main halls were constructed in a neorenaissance -style, while the later enlargement with two outer halls in was constructed in neoclassic -style.

The Frankfurter Hof is a landmarked hotel in the city centre at Kaiserplatz, built from to It is part of Steigenberger Hotels group and is considered the city's most prestigious.

Leonhard , on the Main close to the bridge Eiserner Steg, is a Catholic late Gothic hall church , derived from a Romanesque style basilica beginning in The parish serves the English-speaking community. The church has been under restoration since It hosts 14 out of Germany's 15 skyscrapers.

Bartholomeus's Cathedral was the tallest structure. The first building to exceed the metre-high cathedral was not an office building but a grain silo , the metre high Henninger Turm , built from to The first high-rise building boom came in the s when Westend Gate then called Plaza Büro Center and Silberturm were constructed and became the tallest buildings in Germany with a height of None of the buildings constructed during the s surpassed Silberturm.

The most famous buildings from this decade are the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers at Taunusanlage, both The s featured a second wave. Messeturm , built on the trade fair site, reached a height of It was overtaken by the metre high Commerzbank Tower in Other tall buildings from this decade are Westendstrasse 1 In 21st-century Frankfurt, more high-rise buildings and skyscrapers e. With a large forest, many parks, the Main riverbanks and the two botanical gardens, Frankfurt is considered a "green city": More than 50 percent of the area within the city limits are protected green areas.

With more than 30 museums, Frankfurt has one of the largest variety of museums in Europe. Ten museums are located on the southern riverbank in Sachsenhausen between the Eiserner Steg and the Friedensbrücke. The street itself, Schaumainkai , is partially closed to traffic on Saturdays for Frankfurt's largest flea market.

Not directly located on the northern riverbank in the Altstadt district are:. Another important museum is located in the Westend district:. Eurodance and Trance music originated in Frankfurt. By doing so a new genre was born: Some of the early and most influential Eurodance, Trance and Techno acts, e. Frankfurt offers a variety of restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs. Restaurants, bars and pubs concentrate in Sachsenhausen , Nordend , Bornheim and Bockenheim.

One of the main venues of the early Trance music sound was the Omen nightclub closed Because of the location at the airport the club had no restrictions regarding opening hours. The club had to close at the end of because of stricter fire safety regulations. Also notable for its extraordinary design was Coocoon Club in Fechenheim which opened in was and voted best techno club of the year by music magazines "Groove" and "Raveline" in , , and It closed in The airport has four runways and serves non-stop destinations.

Run by transport company Fraport it ranks among the world's busiest airports by passenger traffic and is the busiest airport by cargo traffic in Europe. The airport also serves as a hub for Condor and as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa. Depending upon whether total passengers or flights are used for calculations, it ranks third or second busiest in Europe alongside London Heathrow Airport and Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport.

Passenger traffic at Frankfurt Airport in was There are plans to expand the airport with a third passenger terminal to increase the capacity up to 88 million in The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two railway stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic.

Hahn Airport is a major base for low-cost carrier Ryanair. This airport can only be reached by car or bus. An hourly bus service runs from Frankfurt Central Station , taking about 1-hour and 45 minutes.

Frankfurt is a traffic hub for the German motorway Autobahn system. With approximately , cars passing through it every day it is Europe's most heavily used interchange. The Bundesautobahn A is mainly a commuter motorway which starts in the south Egelsbach , runs through the eastern part and ends in the north Oberursel.

The Bundesautobahn A is a very short motorway in the western part which primarily serves as a fast connection between the A 66 and the Frankfurt Trade Fair. The A5 in the west, the A3 in the south and the A in the north-east form a ring road around the inner city districts and define a Low-emission zone Umweltzone ; established in , meaning that vehicles have to meet certain emission criteria to enter the zone. The streets of central Frankfurt are usually congested with cars during rush hour.

Car parks are located throughout the city and especially in the city centre. By daily passenger volume, it ranks second together with Munich Central Station , each after Hamburg Central Station , It is located between the Gallus , the Gutleutviertel and the Bahnhofsviertel district, not far away from the trade fair and the financial district.

It serves as a major hub for long-distance trains InterCity , ICE and regional trains as well as for Frankfurt's public transport system. Regional and local trains are integrated in the Public transport system Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund RMV , the second largest integrated public transport systems in the world, after Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg. Frankfurt Airport can be accessed by two railway stations: Frankfurt Airport long-distance station Frankfurt Flughafen Fernbahnhof is only for long-distance traffic and connects the airport to the main rail network, with most of the ICE services using the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line.

The long-distance station is located outside the actual airport ground but has a connecting bridge for pedestrians to Terminal 1, concourse B. The regional station is located within Terminal 1, concourse B. The Frankfurt Trade Fair offers two railway stations: Two other major railway stations in the city centre are Konstablerwache and Hauptwache, located on each end of the Zeil. They are the main stations to change from east-to-west-bound S-Bahn trains to north-to-south-bound U-Bahn trains.

Konstablerwache station is the second-busiest railway station regarding daily passenger volume , after the central station. The third-busiest railway station is Hauptwache station , There are three stations for intercity bus services in Frankfurt: The city has two rapid transit systems: Most routes have at least minute service during the day, either by one line running every 15 minutes, or by two lines servicing one route at a minute interval. When leaving the city the S-Bahn travels above ground.

The trains that run on the line are in fact light rail as many lines travel along a track in the middle of the street instead of underground further from the city centre. The minimum service interval is 2. Frankfurt has ten tram lines 11, 12, 14 to 21 , with trams arriving usually every 10 minutes.

Many sections are served by two lines, combining to run at 5-minute intervals during rush-hour. The tram runs only above ground and serve more stops than the U-Bahn or the S-Bahn. A number of bus lines complete the Frankfurt public transport system. Night buses replace U-Bahn and tram services between 1: Taxicabs can usually be found outside the major S-Bahn and U-Bahn stations, at the central station, the south station, the airport, the trade fair and in the crowded inner-city shopping streets.

The common way to obtain a taxi is to either call a taxi operator or to go to a taxi rank. However, although not the norm, one can hail a passing taxi on the street.

Uber ceased operations in Frankfurt on 9 November after operating in the city for 18 months. Deutsche Bahn makes bicycles available for hire through their Call a Bike service. The bicycles are stationed all over the city, including at selected railway stations. They can easily be spotted because of their eye-catching silver-red colour. To rent a specific bike, riders either call a service number to get an unlock code or reserve the bike via the smartphone application.

To return the bike, the rider locks it within a designated return area and calls the service number, if not booked via the app. Nextbike also makes bicycles available for hire in Frankfurt.

They are stationed all over the city. These can be spotted with their blue color scheme. Cycle rickshaws velotaxis , a type of tricycle designed to carry passengers in addition to the driver, are also available.

These are allowed to operate in pedestrian-only areas and are therefore practical for sightseeing. Frankfurt has a network of cycle routes.

Many long-distance bike routes into the city have cycle tracks that are separate from motor vehicle traffic. A number of roads in the city centre are "bicycle streets" where the cyclist has the right of way and where motorised vehicles are only allowed access if they do not disrupt the cycle users. In addition, cyclists are allowed to ride many cramped one-way streets in both directions.

As of [update] , 15 percent of citizens used bicycles. Frankfurt is one of the world's most important financial centres and Germany's financial capital, followed by Munich. The city's importance as a financial centre has risen since the eurozone crisis. Indications are the establishment of two institutions of the European System of Financial Supervisors European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and European Systemic Risk Board in and the Single Supervisory Mechanism by which the European Central Bank was to assume responsibility for specific supervisory tasks related to the financial stability of the biggest and most important Eurozone banks.

With over jobs per 1, inhabitants, Frankfurt has the highest concentration of jobs in Germany. On work days and Saturdays one million people commute from all over the Rhein-Main-Area. The city is expected to benefit from international banks relocating jobs from London to Frankfurt as a result of Brexit to retain access to the EU market. Frankfurt is home to two important central banks: On the contrary, Critical Theory analyses were oriented to the understanding of society and pointed rather to the necessity of establishing open systems based on immanent forms of social criticism.

The starting point was the Marxian view on the relation between a system of production paralleled by a system of beliefs.

Ideology, which according to Marx was totally explicable through an underlying system of production, for critical theorists had to be analyzed in its own respect and as a non-economically reducible form of expression of human rationality.

Such a revision of Marxian categories became extremely crucial, then, in the reinterpretation of the notion of dialectics for the analysis of capitalism.

Dialectics, as a method of social criticism, was interpreted as following from the contradictory nature of capitalism as a system of exploitation. Indeed, it was on the basis of such inherent contradictions that capitalism was seen to open up to a collective form of ownership of the means of production, namely, socialism.

That is, in addition to propositional contents or performatives, it includes gestures, ceremonies and so forth Geuss , pp. Critical Theory, distances itself from scientific theories because, while the latter understands knowledge as an objectified product, the former serves the purpose of human emancipation through consciousness and self-reflection.

Thus ideological criticism aims at proposing alternative practicable ways for constructing social bounds. Marcuse, for instance, in the essay Philosophie und Kritische Theorie , defends the view that Critical Theory characterizes itself as being neither philosophy tout court nor pure science, as it claims to be instead an overly simplistic approach to Marxism.

Critical Theory has the following tasks: From all this, two notions of rationality result: This difference in forms of rationality is what Habermas has later presented, mutatis mutandis , in terms of the distinction between instrumental and communicative rationality. While the first form of rationality is oriented to a means-ends understanding of human and environmental relations, the second form is oriented to subordinating human action to the respect of certain normative criteria of action validity.

As Geuss has suggested, there are two possible ways to propose such separation: Were one to follow the first option, the outcome would be one of falling into the side of acritical utopianism. Within such a model, epistemic knowledge and social critical reflection are attached to unavoidable pragmatic-transcendental conditions that are universally the same for all.

In one of his later writings of republished in Adorno , pp. The mission of Critical Theory, therefore, is not exhausted by a theoretical understanding of social reality; as a matter of fact, there is a strict interconnection between critical understanding and transformative action: During the entire course of its historical development, Critical Theory has always confronted itself with one crucial methodological concern: To this puzzle critical theorists have provided different answers, such that it is not possible to regroup them into a homogeneous set of views.

This separation has been at the basis of those ethical theories that have not recognized moral statements as a truth-property. Even if characterized by several internal differences, what Critical Theory added to this debate was the consideration both of the anthropological as well as the psychological dynamics motivating masses and structuring ideologies.

There Habermas combined a transcendental argument with an anthropological one by defending the view according to which humans have an interest in knowledge insofar as such interest is attached to the preservation of self-identity. In the latter case, there seems to be required an extra layer of justification, namely, a process through which a norm can be defined as valid.

Such process is for Habermas conceived in terms of a counterfactual procedure for a discursive exchange of arguments. This procedure is aimed at justifying those generalizable interests that ought to be obeyed because they pass the test of moral validity.

One implication, perhaps the most important one, is the criticism of positivism and of the epistemic status of knowledge.

On the basis of Habermasian premises, indeed, there can be no objective knowledge , as positivists claim, detached from intersubjective forms of understanding. Since knowledge is strictly embedded in serving human interests, it follows that it cannot be considered value-neutral and objectively independent.

Adorno noticed how a parallel can be drawn between the loss of self-confidence and estimation in hierarchical domination, on the one hand, and compensation through self-confidence which can be re-obtained in active forms of dominations, on the other hand. Such mechanisms of sadomasochism, though, are not only proper of fascism. In his case, the central problem became that of interpreting the interest in the genealogical roots of capitalist ideology.

How can one provide an account of class interests after the collapse of classes? How can one formulate, on the basis of the insights provided by psychoanalysis, the criteria through which it can be distinguished true from false interests?

Marcuse took imagination as a way to obtain individual reconciliation with social reality: Marcuse conceived of overcoming such tensions through the aestheticization of basic instincts liberated by the work of imagination. For Critical Theory, rationality has always been a crucial theme in the analysis of modern society as well as of its pathologies.

Whereas the early Frankfurt School and Habermas viewed rationality as a historical process whose unity was taken as a precondition for social criticism, later critical philosophies, influenced mainly by post-modernity, privileged a rather more fragmented notion of ir rationality manifested by social institutions.

In the latter views, social criticism could not act as a self-reflective form of rationality, since rationality cannot be conceived as a process incorporated in history. One point shared by all critical theorists was that forms of social pathology were connected to deficits of rationality which, in their turn, manifested interconnections with the psychological status of the mind see Honneth , p. In non-pathological social aggregations, individuals were said to be capable of achieving cooperative forms of self-actualizations only if freed from coercive mechanisms of domination.

Accordingly, for the Frankfurt School, modern processes of bureaucratic administration exemplified what Weber considered as an all-encompassing domination of formal rationality over substantive values. In Weber, rationality was to be interpreted as purposive rationality, that is, as a form of instrumental reason. Accordingly, the use of reason did not amount to formulating prescriptive models of society but aimed at achieving goals through the selection of the best possible means of action.

Nevertheless, the repression by formal-instrumental rationality of natural chaos pointed to the possible resurgence of natural violence under a different vest, so that the liberation from nature through instrumental reason opened to the possibility of domination by a totalitarian state see Ingram , p. According to this view, reason had been seen essentially as a form of control over nature characterizing humanity since its inception, that is, since those attempts aimed at providing a mythological explanation of cosmic forces.

The purpose served by instrumental rationality was essentially that of promoting self-preservation, even if this goal turned paradoxically into the fragmentation of bourgeois individuality that, once deprived of any substantive value, became merely formal and thus determined by external influences of mass-identity in a context of cultural industry. Rationality, thus, began assuming a double significance: If, as Weber believed, modern rationalization of society came to a formal reduction of the power of rationality, it followed that hyper-bureaucratization of society led not just to a complete separation between facts and values but also to a total disinterest in the latter forms.

Nevertheless, for Critical Theory it remained essential to defend the validity of social criticism on the basis of the idea that humanity is embedded in a historical learning process where clash is due to the actualization of reason re-establishing power-balances and struggles for group domination. Given such a general framework on rationality, it can be said that Critical Theory has undergone several paradigm revolutions, both internally and externally.

Secondly, the commitment of Critical Theory to universal validity and universal pragmatics has been widely criticized by post-structuralists and post-modernists who have instead insisted respectively on the hyper-contextualism of the forms of linguistic rationality, as well as on the substitution of a criticism of ideology with genealogical criticism. For Foucault, reason is embedded into such practices which display the multiple layers of un-rationalized force.

The activity of the analyst in this sense is not far from the same activity of the participant: Derrida, for instance, while pointing to the Habermasian idea of pragmatic of communication, still maintained a distinct thesis of a restless deconstructive potential of any constructing activity, so that no unavoidable pragmatic presuppositions nor idealizing conditions of communication could survive deconstruction.

On the other hand, Habermasian theory of communicative action and discourse ethics, while remaining sensitive to contexts, pretended to defend transcendental conditions of discourse which, if violated, were seen to lead to performative contradictions. The debate between Foucault and Critical Theory—in particular with Habermas—is quite illuminating of the common critical-universalist orientations of the first phase of the Frankfurt School versus the diverging methodologies defended starting from the Habermasian interpretation of modernity.

For Foucault it was not correct to propose a second-order theory for defining what rationality is. Rationality is not to be found in abstract forms. On the contrary, what social criticism can only aim to achieve is the unmasking of deeply enmeshed forms of irrationality deposited in contingent and historical institutional embeddings.

Genealogical methods, though, do not reject the idea that ir -rationality is part of history; on the contrary, they rather pretend to illuminate abstract and procedural rational models by dissecting and analyzing concrete institutional social practices through immanent criticism. To this views, Habermas has objected that any activity of rational criticism presupposes unavoidable conditions in order to justify the pretence of validity of its same exercise.

This rebuttal reopened the demands of transcendental conditions for immanent criticism revealed along the same pragmatic conditions of social criticism. For Habermas, criticism is possible only if universal standards of validity are recognized and only if understanding Verständigung and agreement Einverständnis are seen as interconnected practices. A further line of criticism against Habermas, one which included also a target to Critical Theory as a whole, came from scholars like Chantal Mouffe If, as Mouffe claimed, the model of discursive action is bound to the achievement of consensus, then, what rolecan be left to politics once agreement is obtained?

What has been noticed is that whereas Critical Theory has aimed at fostering human emancipation, it has remained incapable of specifying a political action-strategy for social change. Towards a Renewal Nancy Fraser, instead, by focusing on the notion of redistribution has provided key elements in understanding how it is possible to overcome economic inequalities and power-imbalances in post-industrial societies where cultural affiliations are no longer significant sources of power.

In his turn, Alessandro Ferrara along his recent monograph The Democratic Horizon , has revived the paradigm of political liberalism by addressing the significance of democracy and tackled next the problem of hypepluralism and multiple democracies.

For Ferrara, what is inherent to democratic thinking is innovation and openness. Seyla Benhabib, along similar lines, has seeked to clarify the significance of the Habermasian dual-track model of democracy, as one based on the distinction between moral issues that are proper of the institutional level universalism and ethical issues characterizing, instead, informal public deliberations pluralism.

Whereas the requirement of a universal consensus pertains only to the institutional sphere, the ethical domain is instead characterized by a plurality of views confronting each other across different life-systems.

This move is aimed at suggesting an alternative and hopefully more coherent route of explanation for the understanding of the liberal constitutional experience Forst, [] , see also Forst, [] The Frankfurt School and Critical Theory The Frankfurt School, known more appropriately as Critical Theory, is a philosophical and sociological movement spread across many universities around the world.

Table of Contents Critical Theory: Traditional and Critical Theory: What is Critical Theory? The Idea of Rationality: Critical Theory and its Discontents For Critical Theory, rationality has always been a crucial theme in the analysis of modern society as well as of its pathologies. Concluding Thoughts The debate between Foucault and Critical Theory—in particular with Habermas—is quite illuminating of the common critical-universalist orientations of the first phase of the Frankfurt School versus the diverging methodologies defended starting from the Habermasian interpretation of modernity.

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