Imperial Cleaning

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Less than two months later, Napoleon decisively defeated the Third Coalition at the Battle of Austerlitz , knocking Austria out of the war and forcing the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. We had to lie down with full packs - prepared for an alarm - I couldn't get a wink of sleep.

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His sister, Paula , said her mother was "a very soft and tender person, the compensatory element between the almost too harsh father and the very lively children who were perhaps somewhat difficult to train. If there were ever quarrels or differences of opinion between my parents it was always on account of the children. It was especially my brother Adolf who challenged my father to extreme harshness and who got his sound thrashings every day.

How often on the other hand did my mother caress him and try to obtain with her kindness what her father could not succeed in obtaining with his harshness! Adolf Hitler did extremely well at primary school and it appeared he had a bright academic future in front of him. Hitler later referred to "this happy time" when "school work was ridiculously easy, leaving me so much free time that the sun saw more of me than my room".

He was also popular with other pupils and was much admired for his leadership qualities. His religious mother sent him to the monastery school at Lambach , where she hoped that he would eventually become a monk. He was expelled after he was caught smoking on the monastery grounds. Hitler began his secondary schooling on 17th September, The attention he had received from his village teacher was now replaced by the more impersonal treatment of a number of teachers responsible for individual subjects.

Competition was much tougher in the larger secondary school and his reaction to not being top of the class was to stop trying. His father was furious as he had high hopes that Hitler would follow his example and join the Austrian civil service when he left school. However, Hitler was a stubborn child and attempts by his parents and teachers to change his attitude towards his studies were unsuccessful.

Adolf Hitler also lost his popularity with his fellow pupils. They were no longer willing to accept him as one of their leaders. As Hitler liked giving orders he spent his time with younger pupils.

He enjoyed games that involved fighting and he loved re-enacting battles from the Boer War. His favourite game was playing the role of a commando rescuing Boers from English concentration camps. However, his favourite game was taking shots at rats with an airgun. Hitler had little respect for his teachers: If any pupil showed the slightest trace of originality, they persecuted him relentlessly, and the only model pupils whom I have ever known have all been failures in later-life.

If you find this article useful, please feel free to share on websites like Reddit. Please visit our support page. Eduard Humer was not very impressed with Hitler as a student. He recorded in He had definite talent, though in a narrow field. But he lacked self-discipline, being notoriously cantankerous, wilful, arrogant, and bad-tempered. He had obvious difficulty in fitting in at school.

Moreover he was lazy He reacted with ill-concealed hostility to advice or reproof; at the same time, he demanded of his fellow pupils their unqualified subservience, fancying himself in the role of leader. Konrad Heiden was a journalist working in Munich who was one of the first people to investigate Hitler's early life. He discovered that several people he interviewed mentioned Hitler's laziness: Perhaps his childhood furnishes an explanation. The data at our disposal show Adolf Hitler to be a model case for psychoanalysis, one of whose main theories is that every man wants to murder his father and marry his mother.

Adolf Hitler hated his father, and not only in his subconscious; by his insidious rebelliousness he may have brought him to his grave a few years before his time; he loved his mother deeply, and himself said that he had been a mother's darling. Constantly humiliated and corrected by his father, receiving no protection against the mistreatment of outsiders, never recognized or appreciated, driven into a lurking silence - thus, as a child, early sharpened by hard treatment, he seems to have grown accustomed to the idea that right is always on the side of the stronger; a dismal conviction from which people often suffer who as children did not find justice in the father who should have been the natural source of justice.

It is a conviction for all those who love themselves too much and easily forgive themselves every weakness; never are their own incompetence and laziness responsible for failures, but always the injustice of the others.

The only teacher Adolf Hitler appeared to like at secondary school was Leopold Potsch , his history master. Potsch, like many people living in Upper Austria, was a German Nationalist. Potsch told Hitler and his fellow pupils of the German victories over France in and and attacked the Austrians for not becoming involved in these triumphs. Otto von Bismarck , the first chancellor of the German Empire, was one of Hitler's early historical heroes.

Hitler wrote in Mein Kampf Leopold Potsch, my professor at the Realschule in Linz, embodied this requirement to an ideal degree. This old gentleman's manner was as kind as it was determined, his dazzling eloquence not only held us spellbound but actually carried us away.

Even today I think back with gentle emotion on this gray-haired man who, by the fire of his narratives, sometimes made us forget the present; who, as if by enchantment, carried us into past times and, out of the millennial veils of mist, molded dry historical memories into living reality.

On such occasions we sat there, often aflame with enthusiasm, and sometimes even moved to tears. What made our good fortune all the greater was that this teacher knew how to illuminate the past by examples from the present, and how from the past to draw inferences for the present.

As a result he had more understanding than anyone else for all the daily problems which then held us breathless. He used our budding nationalistic fanaticism as a means of educating us, frequently appealing to our sense of national honor. By this alone he was able to discipline us little ruffians more easily than would have been possible by any other means.

This teacher made history my favorite subject. And indeed, though he had no such intention, it was then that I became a little revolutionary.

For who could have studied German history under such a teacher without becoming an enemy of the state which, through its ruling house, exerted so disastrous an influence on the destinies of the nation? And who could retain his loyalty to a dynasty which in past and present betrayed the needs of the German people again and again for shameless private advantage?

Hitler's other main interest at school was art. His father was incensed when Hitler told him that instead of joining the civil service he was going to become an artist. My father was struck speechless. Never as long as I live! The relationship between Adolf Hitler and his father deteriorated and the conflict only ended with his death on 3rd January His most ardent desire had been to help his son forge his career, thus preserving him from his own bitter experience.

In this, to all appearances, he had not succeeded. But, though unwittingly, he had sown the seed for a future which at that time neither he nor I would have comprehended.

Hitler was thirteen when his father died. Klara Hitler , a kind and gentle woman, tended to spoil her son. Like her husband she was keen for Adolf to do well at school. Her attempts at persuasion achieved no more success than her husband's threats and he continued to obtain poor grades.

Adolf Hitler continued to show no real interest in his studies. His last school report, dated 16th September, , shows marks of "adequate" in German, chemistry, physics, geometry and geometrical drawing. In geography and history he was "satisfactory". However, his free-hand drawing was described as "excellent". At the age of fifteen he did so badly in his examinations that he was told he would have to repeat the whole year's work again.

Hitler hated the idea and managed to persuade his mother to allow him to leave school without a secondary education qualification. He celebrated by getting drunk.

However, he found it an humiliating experience and vowed never to get drunk again. He kept his promise and by the time he reached his thirties he had given up alcohol completely.

Hitler's mother, who was then forty-two, moved to a modest apartment in Urfahr, a suburb of Linz , where she tried to keep herself and her two surviving children, Adolf and Paula, on the savings and pensions left her. According to William L. Shirer , the author of The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich , "the young widow was indulgent to her son, and he seems to have loved her dearly I, for my part, was more than ever determined absolutely not to undertake this career.

In proportion as my schooling departed from my ideal in subject matter and curriculum, I became more indifferent at heart.

Then suddenly an illness came to my help and in a few weeks decided my future and the eternal domestic quarrel. Adolf Hitler met August Kubizek at a opera house in The two subsequently became roommates and took frequent walks through the town and went on country excursions.

The serious, tense, and meticulous Adolf dominated his friend, who served as a kind of audience. Kubizek later claimed that Hitler felt very strongly about political issues: Quite trivial things, such as a few thoughtless words, could produce in him outbursts of temper which I thought were quite out of proportion to the significance of the matter. But probably, I misunderstood Adolf in this respect.

Perhaps the difference between us was that he took things seriously which seemed to be quite unimportant. Yes, this was one of his typical traits; everything aroused his interest and disturbed him - to nothing was he indifferent.

They were both impressed with the cultural life of the city and loved the splendor of its buildings, its art galleries and theatres. On his return to Linz , Hitler was less inclined than ever to find a job. The two men decided that they would become students in Vienna.

However, Hitler had to wait until he received his inheritance from his father's will when he reached the age of eighteen. Klara Hitler became seriously ill.

According to Dr Eduard Bloch: She complained of a pain in her chest. She spoke in a quiet, hushed voice; almost a whisper. The pain she said, had been great; enough to keep her awake nights on end. She had been busy with her household so had neglected to seek medical aid. Besides, she thought the pain would pass away An examination showed that Frau Hitler had an extensive tumor of the breast.

Dr Bloch later recalled that Hitler was a dutiful son: During the day he hovered about the large bed in which she lay. He proposed the use of the disinfectant, iodoform. At the time it was believed that iodoform gauze packed onto the suppurating wound was the best treatment for cancer.

Adolf Hitler did not let his mother's illness to interfere with his plans and in the autumn of he left home for Vienna. He was joined by August Kubizek who intended to study the viola at the Academy of Music.

The two men roomed together at No. At the Realschule I had been by far the best in my class at drawing, and since then my ability had developed amazingly; my own satisfaction caused me to take a joyful pride in hoping for the best. Yet sometimes a drop of bitterness put in its appearance: Hitler's mood was not helped by the fact that Kubizek's application was successful. Hitler returned home when he heard that his mother was close to death. She bore her burden well; unflinching and uncomplaining.

But it seemed to torture her son. An anguished grimace would come over him when he saw pain contract her face. There was little that could be done. An injection of morphine from time to time would give temporary relief; but nothing lasting.

Yet Adolf seemed enormously grateful even for these short periods of release. I shall never forget Klara Hitler during those days. She was forty eight at the time; tall, slender and rather handsome, yet wasted by disease. She was soft-spoken, patient; more concerned about what would happen to her family than she was about her approaching death.

Klara Hitler died of cancer on 21st December, Yet it was a dreadful blow, particularly for me. I had honored my father, but my mother I had loved. He had fond memories of his mother, carried her photograph wherever he went. It was "utterly ineffective, expensive, and the caustic solution caused unbearable agony for the patient it was administered to, usually in the form of idoform-soaked gauze applied directly to the skin above the tumor.

Hitler's experience of her agony was the unconscious source of his deadly hate for the Jews. Ron Rosenbaum , the author of Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of his Evil , rejects this theory. He points out that Hitler later sent Bloch a postcard saying that he had his "undying gratitude" for the the care he showed his mother. Adolf Hitler now returned to Vienna and continued to live with August Kubizek.

Hitler's biographer, Alan Bullock , has commented: He had no other friends. Women were attracted to him, but he showed complete indifference to them. Much of the time he spent dreaming or brooding. His moods alternated between abstracted preoccupation and outbursts of excited talk. He wandered for hours through the streets and parks, staring at buildings which he admired, or suddenly disappearing into the public library in pursuit of some new enthusiasm.

Again and again, the two young men visited the Opera and the Burgtheater. But while Kubizek pursued his studies at the Conservatoire, Hitler was incapable of any disciplined or systematic work He had the artist's temperament without either talent, training, or creative energy.

In September Hitler applied again for admission to the Academy of Art. Once again he was rejected. It was incomprehensible to him that I had never attended an architectural school or received any other training in architecture. Kubizek claims that Hitler took the news very badly: I had the impression that Adolf Hitler became unbalanced.

A lack of funds forced to leave this place and several months during the summer of he lived on the streets. Hitler wrote in Mein Kampf that the next few years were the worst in his life.

He said he identified with the peasant from the rural areas who moved to Vienna to find work: Often he pawns or sells the last of his belongings. His clothes begin to get shabby - with the increasing poverty of his outward appearance he descends to a lower social level. In December he found a bed in a doss-house behind Meidling Station in Vienna. Reinhold Hanisch , a tramp from Bohemia , met Hitler on his first day in the refuge.

His clothes were being cleaned of lice, since for days he had been wandering about without a roof and in a terribly neglected condition. Ian Kershaw has pointed out in Hitler The hostel was a night-shelter offering short-term accommodation only.

A bath or shower, disinfection of clothes, soup and bread, and a bed in the dormitory were provided. But during the day the inmates were turned out to fend for themselves. Hitler, looking in a sorry state and in depressed mood, went in the mornings along with other destitutes to a nearby convent in Gumpendorfersrrafse where the nuns doled out soup. The time was otherwise spent visiting public warming-rooms, or trying to earn a bit of money.

Hanisch took him off to shovel snow, but without an overcoat Hitler was in no condition to stick at it for long. He offered to carry bags for passengers at the Westbahnhof, but his appearance probably did not win him many customers. Hanisch asked Hitler if he had skills he could use to make money. Adolf Hitler told him he was an artist and said that he could fake some old masters.

According to Hanisch he replied: I myself was to sell the painted cards, we decided to work together and share the money we earned. The journalist, Konrad Heiden , interviewed Reinhold Hanisch in the s. It had business possibilities: Adolf answered that he was tired and wretched, and wanted to rest Yes, he could paint beautiful pictures, said Hitler, but what good was that? To whom could he sell them? He couldn't show himself anywhere as an artist, because his clothes were much too shabby.

Hanisch explained that it wasn't a question of great works of art, but of modest little picture postcards which could be peddled in taverns and fairs for a few cents; the secret of this business was to work very hard and sell cheap with a big turnover.

But for that Adolf objected, you had to have a permit from the police, and he didn't have one; he would certainly be arrested and put in jail. He was looking for difficulties, and Hanisch may well have thought that the fallen artist-prince still had much to learn in the hard school of life.

Just paint your little cards, he said, and let me worry about the rest. Hitler painted or rather drew his lifeless, rather dark pen-and-ink copies of the Burgtheater, or the Roman ruins in Schonbrunn Park; and Hanisch, little worried about permit or police, peddled them around in the taverns. Reinhold Hanisch claims that Hitler was a very lazy worker.

Hanisch told Rudolf Olden , the author of Hitler the Pawn Then he would hang around night shelters, living on the bread and soup that he got there, and discussing politics, often getting involved in heated controversies. On 5th August, Hitler made an official complaint against the man he knew as Fritz Walter: He regularly received fifty per cent of the proceeds from me.

For about two weeks Hanisch has not returned to the Home for Men, and stole from me the picture of parliament, valued at fifty kronen, and a water-colour, valued at nine kronen.

It was while living in Vienna that Adolf Hitler became interested in politics. Hitler was a supporter of Karl Lueger , the leader of the Christian Social Party and the mayor of the city. Hitler claimed in Mein Kampf that it was Lueger who helped develop his anti-semitic views: Karl Lueger and the Christian Social Party. When I arrived in Vienna, I was hostile to both of them.

The man and the movement seemed reactionary in my eyes. My common sense of justice, however, forced me to change this judgment in proportion as I had occasion to become acquainted with the man and his work; and slowly my fair judgment turned to unconcealed admiration For a few hellers I bought the first anti-Semitic pamphlets of my life Wherever I went, I began to see Jews, and the more I saw, the more sharply they became distinguished in my eyes from the rest of humanity.

Particularly the Inner City and the districts north of the Danube Canal swarmed with a people which even outwardly had lost all resemblance to Germans. And whatever doubts I may still have nourished were finally dispelled by the attitude of a portion of the Jews themselves. Hitler goes onto argue: Later I often grew sick to my stomach from the smell of these caftan-wearers. Added to this, there was their unclean dress and their generally un-heroic appearance.

All this could scarcely be called very attractive; but it became positively repulsive when, in addition to their physical uncleanliness, you discovered the moral stains on this 'chosen people. Was there any form of filth or profligacy, particularly in cultural life, without at least one Jew involved in it? If you cut even cautiously into such an abscess, you found, like a maggot in a rotting body, often dazzled by the sudden light - a kike!

What had to be reckoned heavily against the Jews in my eyes was when I became acquainted with their activity in the press, art, literature, and the theater. Lueger attacked Adler for his Jewish origins and his Marxism. According to Rudolf Olden Hitler shared Lueger's dislike of Adler even though his "genius, tact and kindheartedness gained him admirers among all classes". Internationalism, equality of individuals and peoples, universal, equal and direct suffrage, fundamental labour and union rights, separation of church and state, and a people's army were what the Social Democrats stood for.

It was little wonder that the young Hitler, avid supporter of pan-Germanism, hated the Social Democrats with every fibre of his body. He wrote in Mein Kampf: And in a few months I obtained what might otherwise have required decades: Adolf Hitler also developed a dislike of trade unionism: From the very beginning it was none too pleasant My knowledge of trade-union organization was at that time practically non-existent.

I could not have proved that its existence was either beneficial or harmful. When I was told that I had to join, I refused. The reason I gave was that I did not understand the matter, but that I would not let myself be forced into anything. Perhaps my first reason accounts for my not being thrown out at once.

They may perhaps have hoped to convert me or break down my resistance in a few days. In any event, they had made a big mistake. At the end of two weeks I could no longer have joined, even if I had wanted to. In these two weeks I came to know the men around me more closely, and no power in the world could have moved me to join an organization whose members had meanwhile come to appear to me in so unfavorable a light. Hitler's hatred of the Social Democratic Workers' Party and trade unionism increased after a mass demonstration in Vienna.

With what changed feeling I now gazed at the endless columns of a mass demonstration of Viennese workers that took place one day as they marched past four abreast! For neatly two hours I stood there watching with bated breath the gigantic human dragon slowly winding by.

In oppressed anxiety, I finally left the place and sauntered homeward. It was available in a cheap people's cafe, to which I often went to read newspapers; but up to that time I had not been able to bring myself to spend more than two minutes on the miserable sheet, whose whole tone affected me like moral vitriol. Depressed by the demonstration, I was driven on by an inner voice to buy the sheet and read it carefully.

That evening I did so, fighting down the fury that rose up in me from time to time at this concentrated solution of lies. More than any theoretical literature, my daily reading of the Social Democratic press enabled me to study the inner nature of these thought-processes. For what a difference between the glittering phrases about freedom, beauty, and dignity in the theoretical literature, the delusive welter of words seemingly expressing the most profound and laborious wisdom, the loathsome humanitarian morality - all this written with the incredible gall that comes with prophetic certainty - and the brutal daily press, shunning no villainy, employing every means of slander, lying with a virtuosity that would bend iron beams, all in the name of this gospel of a new humanity.

I now understood the significance of the brutal demand that I read only Red papers, attend only Red meetings, read only Red books, etc. With plastic clarity I saw before my eyes the inevitable result of this doctrine of intolerance. The psyche of the great masses is not receptive to anything that is half-hearted and weak. Like the woman, whose psychic state is determined less by grounds of abstract reason than by an indefinable emotional longing for a force which will complement her nature, and who, consequently, would rather bow to a strong man than dominate a weakling, likewise the masses love a commander more than a petitioner and feel inwardly more satisfied by a doctrine, tolerating no other beside itself, than by the granting of liberalistic freedom with which, as a rule, they can do little, and are prone to feel that they have been abandoned By the turn of the century, the trade-union movement had ceased to serve its former function.

From year to year it had entered more and more into the sphere of Social Democratic politics and finally had no use except as a battering-ram in the class struggle. Its purpose was to cause the collapse of the whole arduously constructed economic edifice by persistent blows, thus, the more easily, after removing its economic foundations, to prepare the same lot for the edifice of state.

Konrad Heiden , a journalist who investigated Hitler's time in Vienna , pointed out that the fact Victor Adler was Jewish had a major impact on the development of his political philosophy. And this opponent, whom he combated from the profound hatred of his soul, is and remains plain ordinary work.

Organized, it calls itself labour movement, trade union, Socialist Party. And, or so it seems to him, Jews are always the leaders. The intellectual of the bourgeois era had not yet discovered the workers, and if the workers wanted to have leaders with university education, often only the Jewish intellectual remained - the type which might have liked to become a judge or Government official, but in Germany, Austria, or Russia simply could not.

Yet, though many Socialist leaders are Jews, only few Jews are Socialist leaders. To call the mass of modern Jewry Socialist, let alone revolutionary, is a bad propaganda joke. Heiden rejected the idea that Hitler's anti-semitism had anything to do with the role that Jews played in capitalism: The few bourgeois Jews.

The few bourgeois Jews in the home city did not attract his attention But he did notice the proletarian and sub-proletarian figures from the Vienna slums, and they repelled him; he felt them to be foreign - just as he felt the non-Jewish workers to be foreign.

With amazing indifference he reports that he could not stand up against either of them in political debate; he admits that the workers knew more than he did, that the Jews were more adept at discussion.

He goes on to relate how he looked into this uncanny labour movement more closely, and to his great amazement discovered large numbers of Jews at its head. The great light dawned on him; suddenly the 'Jewish question' became clear. If we subject his own account to psychological analysis, the result is rather surprising: For him this inference was logical.

To lead this broken, degenerate mass, dehumanized by overwork, was a thankless task. No one would do it unless impelled by a secret, immensely alluring purpose; the young artist-prince simply did not believe in the morality of pity of which these Jewish leaders publicly spoke so much; there is no such thing, he knew people better - particularly he knew himself.

The secret purpose could only be a selfish one - whether mere good living or world domination, remained for the moment a mystery. But one thing is certain: Adolf Hitler had refused twice to respond to letters calling him to join the Austro-Hungarian Army.

However, he did attend the third call and reported to the army office in Salzburg in the summer of Hitler was bitterly upset when after being medically examined on 5th February, , he was rejected as being: Unable to bear arms. The outbreak of the First World War provided him with an opportunity for a fresh start. It was a chance for him to become involved in proving that Germany was superior to other European countries.

Hitler claimed that when he heard the news of war: What a man wants is what he hopes and believes. The overwhelming majority of the nation had long been weary of the eternally uncertain state of affairs; thus it was only too understandable that they no longer believed in a peaceful conclusion of the Austro-Serbian conflict, but hoped for the final settlement. I, too, was one of these millions. Rejecting the idea of fighting for Austria , Hitler volunteered for the German Army.

On 1st August he was a member of the cheering, singing crowd which gathered on the Odeonsplatz in Munich to listen to the proclamation of the war. Within a few days I was wearing that uniform which I was not to put off again for nearly six years. Another volunteer in the same regiment was Rudolf Hess and the regimental clerk was Sergeant Max Amann.

After initial training in Munich Hitler arrived on the Western Front on 21st October , where his regiment took part in the Battle of Ypres. It has been claimed that Hitler's regiment was reduced from 3, to men during this first period of fighting. Hitler had very few friends but he did write a detailed letter to Ernst Hepp , a man who he had rented a room from in Munich about the fighting that had taken place: Just as we were getting our marching orders, Major Count Zech rode by: Every man of us was overjoyed.

Out there the first shrapnel were flying over us, bursting at the edge of the woods, and tearing apart the trees like so much brushwood. We looked on curiously. We had no real idea of the danger. None of us was afraid. Hitler was then given orders to charge the enemy trenches: To left and right the shrapnel were bursting, and in between the English bullets sang. But we paid no attention.

For ten minutes we lay there, and then we were again ordered forward. I was way out in front, ahead of our squad The first of our men began to fall. The English had set up machine-guns. We threw ourselves down and crawled slowly forward through a gutter. From time to time a man was hit and couldn't go on, and the whole column was stuck We ran fifteen or twenty yards, then we came to a big pool of water. One after another we splashed into it, took cover, and caught our breath.

But it was no place to lie still. So we dashed out quick, and double-quick, to a forest that lay about a hundred yards ahead of us. There we found each other after a while We crawled on our bellies to the edge of the woods. Over us the shells were howling and whistling, splintered tree-trunks and branches flew around us.

And then again grenades crashed into the wood, hurling up clouds of stones, earth, and stifling everything in a yellowish-green, stinking, sickening vapour. We couldn't lie there forever, and if we were going to be killed, it was better to be killed outside.

I jumped up and ran, as fast as I could, across meadows and turnip-fields, jumping over ditches, over wire and living hedges A long trench lay before me; a moment later I had jumped into it. Before me, behind me, to the left and right others followed.

Beside me were Wurttembergers, under me dead and wounded Englishmen. The Wurttembergers had stormed the trench before us. And now I knew why I had landed so soft when I jumped in. Between and yards to the left of us there were still English trenches; to the right, the road to Leceloire was still in their possession. An unbroken hail of iron was whistling over our trench. After shelling the British trenches Hitler and the other members of the regiment were ordered forward: One - two - three - five - and so on.

Again and again a shell burst in the English trenches ahead of us. The fellows swarmed out like ants, and then we rushed them. We ran into the fields like lightning, and after bloody hand-to-hand fighting in different places, we threw them out of one trench after another. Many of them raised their hands. Those who wouldn't surrender were knocked down. In this way we cleared trench after trench.

For three days we fought on like this, and on the third day the Britishers were finally licked. The fourth evening we marched back to Werwick. Only then did we see what our losses had been. In four days our regiment of thirty-five hundred men had melted away to six hundred. There were only thirty officers left in the whole regiment.

Hitler, like all those who survived the battle, was promoted to the rank of lance-corporal. Hitler was assigned on 9th November as an orderly dispatch runner. His task was a runner whose job was to carry messages between the front-line and Regimental Headquarters, three kilometres away. Although he was not actually in the trenches, it was a dangerous job.

On one day alone, three out of eight of the regiment's dispatch-runners were killed and another one wounded. On 2nd December Hitler was presented with the Iron Cross, Second Class , one of four dispatch runners in his regiment to receive the honour. It was, he said, "the happiest day of my life". It is claimed that he received the award for saving the life of Lieutenant-Colonel Philipp Engelhardt. Thomas Weber , the author of Hitler's First War has raised doubts about the truth of the incident.

If we can believe a report by Georg Eichelsdorfer, the former regimental adjutant, Hitler and Bachmann dramatically leapt forward, covering Engelhardt's body and taking him back to safety.

However, there is other evidence that Hitler did save the life of his commanding officer. Engelhardt wrote to the Hamburg Provincial Court in I must emphasize the following: As our men were storming the wedge-shaped forest, I stepped out of the woods near Wytschaete to get a better view of developments.

Hitler and the volunteer Bachmann, another battle orderly belonging to the 16th Regiment, stood before me to protect me with their bodies from the machine-gun fire to which I was exposed. Adolf Hitler liked being in the army. For the first time he was part of a group that was fighting for a common goal. Additional single row of piping above the band - Ponceaurot poppy red.

König Wilhelm I 1. Additional single row of piping above the band - Pompadour rot deep pink. König Humbert von Italien 1. Königin Wilhelmena der Niederlande Hannoversches Nr. Piping - Gelb yellow to September , Dunkelgelb dark yellow after. Additional single row of piping above the band - Ponceaurot poppy red Tradition Badge - Silver Braunschweig pattern Totenkopf.

Above and below the band - Ponceaurot poppy red Cap Band - Grey. Landgendarmerie Landjäger Korps Feldgendarmerie Feldgrau only. All Feldgeistliche Field clergyman. A Schirmmütze was not authorized until the AKO of Bayern Feldgeistliche wore this pattern from to 31 March Piping was worn on the top of the Mütze as of 21 September by all contingents except Bayern Bavaria.

Bayern Feldgeistliche added the top piping on 31 March Cap Band - Purpurrot purple Tradition badge - A white enameled cross was worn by Catholic and Lutheran clergymen. Jewish Rabbies wore the same cap without the cross.

The inboard sections carry electrically operated flaps. There is a single lift strut on each side, attached to the lower fuselage. Behind the cabin the fuselage is slender and carries a low set, straight tapered tailplane with horn balanced elevators. The fin and rudder are straight edged and sharply tapered, the latter horn balanced and ending at the top of the fuselage.

There is a small underfin. The G3 Mirage has a tricycle undercarriage with cantilever legs mounted to the fuselage and with faired wheels. The G3 Mirage first flew on 20 September with the lower powered Rotax.

The first production aircraft also used this engine but had some small horizontal control surface modifications plus the addition of a horn balance to the rudder. The GX has been the current production model since and features folding wings and monocoque carbon fiber construction. Its wing has a different airfoil than the G3, improving roll rate and giving better penetration of turbulence.

The GX was introduced at the Sebring Expo.

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