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Pläne dazu hat das Finanzministerium vorgelegt. Es herrscht Unruhe bei der Uelzener Belegschaft. Das Gericht habe die Revision als unbegründet verworfen, sagte ….
Ulrich Hillmer steht im Chor von St. Johannis und blättert durch das Taufbuch. Die allererste Seite stammt von — dem Jahr, in dem die St. Im Theater an der Ilmenau wird sich vorerst kein Vorhang mehr heben. Das Theater ist ab sofort geschlossen. Das gibt die Stadt Uelzen bekannt. Ein Gutachten der Dekra hat ergeben, dass ein sicherer Spielbetrieb nicht ….
Verkehrschaos pur in Uelzens Innenstadt. Seit vorgestern ist die …. Unter Drogeneinfluss am Steuer Uelzen. Stadt Uelzen — Archiv On 17 September he was put on trial together with 43 other SS men and women in Lüneburg. He was sentenced to death and executed on 13 December Die Soldaten des Bösen , Reinbek bei Hamburg After one year of voluntary military duty, , he commenced his studies, mainly of philosophy and medicine.
He obtained a degree in both subjects. On 30 August , he began his work as a camp doctor at Auschwitz , where he had been sent to replace a colleague who had fallen ill. By 2 September he had already taken part in his first selection.
Not only did he participate in numerous selections and gassings, he also used the opportunity to refresh his interest in the symptoms of hunger. Kremer examined specially chosen prisoners and after his examinations he often had them killed with phenol injections in order to study their inner organs more closely. Shortly after his transfer back from Auschwitz in November he rejoined the university. In June , he was arrested by the British. His diaries, which represent important documents, were seized.
In , he was extradited to Poland and put on trial in Krakow , where on 22 December he was sentenced to death. Because of his age, the penalty was reduced to imprisonment for life. As a result of his good behaviour he was released in January and returned to West Germany. Here he was arrested and sentenced to ten years imprisonment, but the sentence was commuted due to the time he had spent in jail in Poland. Because of his crimes in Auschwitz he was deprived of his degrees by the university.
Kremer was a witness at the Auschwitz-process in Frankfurt He died in in Münster. Commanders of Auschwitz , Atglen From summer until the beginning of he served in the SS-camp at the Columbiahaus in Berlin.
From here he went as an adjutant to the concentration camp Lichtenburg , and was transferred from there to the Inspectorate of the Concentration Camps Inspektorat der Konzentrationslager in Berlin on 1 August Later the Inspectorate moved to the so-called T-building in Oranienburg , close to the concentration camp Sachsenhausen.
In he took over the leadership of Department DI of the Wirtschaftsverwaltungshauptamt WVHA, the economic and administration department , which was responsible for the concentration camps. In this way he became the deputy of SS-Brigadeführer Richard Glücks , the chief of all concentration camps.
At this time the camp complex was split up into three camps with their own commandants. But the commandant of the Stammlager , the old main camp, still remained Standortältester Head Garrison Officer. The random selections in the Bunker of the Stammlager in the cellar of Block 11 and the following mass executions at the black wall were stopped and the wall torn down. However, the executions continued on a smaller scale in the crematoria at Birkenau. The Bunker cells in which the prisoners could only stand were demolished and Liebehenschel permitted action against the informer system in the camp.
At the same time the camp selections were clearly reduced. In a unique act, the Commandant even had talks with representatives of the camp resistance movement. All of this brought some hope into the camp, but it must be emphasized that more than ever it had become important to preserve manpower for German industry, so that the prisoners in all camps were treated a little better at that time.
This transfer may indicate a connection between the Aktion Reinhard camps and Auschwitz , since almost all personnel from the Reinhard camps were transferred to this command. After the war Liebehenschel was arrested by the Americans and extradited to Poland. With some of the other main criminals from Auschwitz he was put on trial in Krakow , sentenced to death and hanged in As a student his main interests were philosophy and medicine, particularly anthropology and genetics. From June until the end of he served at the front, and among other decorations was awarded the Iron Cross Class 1 for bravery.
He again served within the RuSHA for a few months, until he was transferred voluntarily to Auschwitz. Here he could work without limit on his main interest: His particular interests were research into twins and deformity. Mengele served in several different posts as a doctor in Auschwitz. His enormous energy and his methods soon gave him the name: There is no doubt that numerous witnesses have accused Mengele of many crimes that he did not commit, but at the same time it must be emphasized that no doctor in Auschwitz was as feared as he.
With the transports from Hungary a vast number of twins arrived, whom he abused for his anthropological examinations and experiments. Jewish and Gypsy children were his especial victims, but thousands of adults were selected by him for death, both on the ramp and within the camp. His ruthless methods fighting typhus in the camp were particularly infamous.
On one occasion he sent all of the prisoners of one block to the gas chambers so that the whole block could be simultaneously deloused. Mengele remained in Auschwitz until 17 January when the evacuation began. Despite orders to burn everything incriminating, he tried to save his written material. He served as a camp doctor at KZ Gross-Rosen for one month, and then hid himself in a Wehrmacht unit.
In June he was arrested by the Americans, but since he was not recognized he was released one month later. Because his name was often mentioned in the ongoing Nazi trials, he lived under a false identity until He finally left Europe and emigrated to Argentine in In South America he lived in several different countries, always on the run until his death in His fate after the war and the myths connected to his person resulted in the formation of a British team of doctors in , which identified his body beyond all doubt using DNA tests.
Mengele had drowned in Brazil whilst swimming. Der Arzt von Auschwitz , Göttingen Later he became the infamous leader of the punishment company in Birkenau. In this capacity he took a decisive part in the mass murder of the prisoners after the attempted escape from the unit on 10 June For a period he commanded the Sonderkommando special command that burned the bodies in the pits at bunkers 1 and 2 in Birkenau.
His work here was characterized with extreme brutality, but in the eyes of his superiors it was so valuable that he was honoured with a high decoration and promoted Schutzhaftlagerführer Deputy Commandant.
Moll was to be the leader of all crematoria in Birkenau. Many survivors of the Sonderkommando described Moll as an extremely cruel and barbaric person, who even threw living children into the open pits where the bodies were being burned. They had been told that they were going to be transferred to Gleiwitz , which made sense to them since they knew that Moll had been Deputy Commandant of that camp. Instead of being taken there, they were brought by Moll and other SS men to a delousing facility in " Kanada I " near the main camp and gassed.
This mass murder resulted in a decision by the Sonderkommando that at the next selection in the company they would revolt - and so they did on 7 October After the "Hungarian Action", Moll returned to his position in Gleiwitz. A plan for killing all prisoners and destroy all buildings at Auschwitz-Birkenau was named after its inventor: This plan was not carried out. He and his gas chamber specialists probably made a sort of shuttle between the two camps.
In both camps he supervised and took part in both gassings and mass executions by shooting during the last months of the war. For crimes in this camp he was sentenced to death by an American court at Dachau in and hanged in Landsberg on 28 May From Sachsenhausen he was transferred to Auschwitz , where he arrived on 20 May He brought with him 30 prisoners from Sachsenhausen who were to take over posts as Funktionshäftlinge prisoners with special functions.
Palitzsch was the first Rapportführer and in this position he practised extensive terror. Moreover he very often took part in the executions at the black wall. Like many other SS men he enriched himself by stealing the property robbed from the victims and because of this he was a subject of SS investigations into theft and corruption.
It may be assumed that his transfer in autumn to a sub-camp at Brno Brünn , where he was made the Commandant, was in fact a penal transfer. After the death of his wife, who had come with him to Auschwitz , numerous rumours circulated in Auschwitz that Palitzsch had enjoyed several relationships with female prisoners, including, among others, some with inmates of the Gypsy Camp. Shortly after his transfer to Brno he was arrested, sent back to Auschwitz , and interred in the prison in Block On 1 June , he was thrown out of the SS.
His later fate is unknown; he is said to have fallen during the battle of Budapest. Among the many statements about Palitzsch, three that are typical should be mentioned as they clarify the portrait of one murderer among many: He literally climbed over dead bodies in order to satisfy his lust for power. Bezwinska, Jadwiga and Czech, Danuta: By , during his time at university, he had already joined the Nazi Party and in he became a member of the SA.
He obtained his medical degree in and began working for the health authorities in Halle , until in he was called-up for military duty in the Luftwaffe. A few months after the outbreak of the war he was invited by Victor Brack from T4 to join his euthanasia organisation.
After a short time for reflection Schumann accepted, and in he was sent to Grafeneck in Württemberg as leader of the institution. In early summer he was transferred to another killing institution, becoming the leader of Sonnenstein near Dresden. Schumann had no psychiatric education whatsoever.
Werner Heyde , in Würzburg. This was called " Aktion 14f13". The selected prisoners were sent to the killing institutions to be gassed. In connection with this work Schumann came to Auschwitz for the first time on 28 July After the selection they were all taken to Sonnenstein and gassed.
On 2 November Schumann returned to Auschwitz but this time he had a different function. Schumann, who was now an Oberleutnant in the Luftwaffe , did not belong to the Auschwitz garrison; with the strong support of Himmler he worked directly under Victor Brack.
He now proposed undertaking sterilization experiments on men and women. The experiments were intended to find a method for the mass sterilization of oppressed people, so that their working capacity could be exploited whilst at the same time they could be prevented from having children.
He also carried out castrations in the Stammlager , first in Block 21, later in the experimental Block 10, where Clauberg also worked on sterilization methods. To some extent Schumann personally picked out his subjects, mainly very young Jewish men and women. He then irradiated the testicles and ovaries. In order to find the right level of irradiation he had to use different timing periods and dosages. This led to severe burns for many victims and very serious harm to their inner organs.
Not only were they forced to work immediately after the painful treatment, but many of them were irradiated several times. In order to know whether he had been successful with the men, Schumann needed samples of sperm. These were taken from the victims in an unbelievably humiliating and painful manner. One testicle was removed from some of the male subjects and one ovary was cut out from some of the females.
Both kinds of samples were sent to the University of Breslau today Wroclaw for examination. After some time the victims were released into the camp and had to work normally. Among the attendees were the representative of the State Government, the Police Headquarters, the Reichswehr, the Protestant church council and others.
Instead of landing on the market square, it had been bested by a single well-timed cannon shot and thus spared the city the plague. The arch underneath the Old Town Hall then and now.
Today it contains the Memorial to German Prisoners of War, dedicated in to those citizens of Munich who were still being held prisoner. It was unveiled at a time when 12, citizens of Munich were still registered as missing, many in the Soviet Union. The deliberately restrained stone relief by Franz Mikorey reflects the view of prisoners of war then prevailing in post-war Germany, showing three grieving women awaiting the return of prisoners of war as the inscription tells us , whose sufferings should never be forgotten.
After the war and with the old town hall behind me, and the Ludwig Beck shop being built amidst the ruins and as it appears today. The Alte Rathaus as it appeared after the bombin and today. By December 17, bombs further destroyed the tower and the south wing, forcing the remains to be torn down. On the right looking behind from Tal is the former "Zum Meteck" guesthouse, now an hideous Sparkasse bank.
The ruins on the south side of the square were demolished in the sequence and the building line partly offset by several meters back, especially in the east of the square to create more space. In place of Peterhof was later rebuilt several times House Hugendubel.
For the construction of the execrable Kaufhof in the s, the richly decorated Roman Mayr House of the previous turn of the century had to give way. It was here that Dr. Wilhelm Gutberlet had treated Hitler for a throat infection early in the latter's political career. Walter Schellenberg described him in his postwar memoirs as "a Munich physician who belonged to the intimate circle around Hitler. The former was reconstructed by Munich architect Erwin Schleich from to The painting is one of about 2, works that Hitler painted between about and as a struggling young artist.
Apparently the original handwritten bill of sale, dated September 25, , had come with the painting and was a rarity for Hitler's art. That also explained the relatively high selling price, she said. But that has raised doubt among critics about the painting's provenance.
They recall how hoaxer Konrad Kujau used supposed certifications of authenticity to trick some historians when he marketed what proved to be bogus "Hitler Diaries" in The Viktualienmarkt during the Nazi-era, after the war and today. A bird's eye view of the site in and today showing the postwar development all around. When Marienplatz became too small as a market for cereals and other agricultural products, the Viktualienmarkt was created by a decree issued by King Maximilian I on 2. In the course of time many additions were made to the market, as for example a butchers' hall, a tripe hall, pavilions for bakeries, fruit vendors and a fish hall.
During World War II this square with its cosy atmosphere was severely damaged. There was even talk of closing down the market in order to erect multi-story buildings on this important site. Later, memorial fountains for the folk singers and comedians Ida Schumacher, Elise Aulinger and Roider Jackl were added.
Hitler's painting of the Peterskirche from the Viktualienmarkt in with it in and today The ascent from the Viktualienmarkt to the Peterskirche in and today showing how, during the postwar reconstruction, the area was tidied up to provide more space. The right shows the church from the north of the Rindermarkt before the war and today.
The cathedral suffered severe damage during the war - the roof collapsed and one of the towers suffered severe damage as shown on the right with my uncle demonstrating the building today after a major restoration effort which began after the war and which was carried out in several stages, the last of which coming to an end in The interior then and now with Drake Winston - after bombing in , and a procession going past led by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber Hitler in triumph down Munich's Maxburgstrasse towards Marienplatz after the return of Memel, March 26, and with Drake Winston today.
This line in turn was recogni s ed by the Congress of Vienna in , and it was the identical boundary established at the Peace of Thorn in between Poland-Lithuania and the German Order of Knights. It was evident that the March Memel agreement was a conservative step rather than a radical innovation. They had seized a city which in the seven centuries of its history had never been separated from its East Prussian homeland. Hoggan Forced War. Drake Winston in front of St. Michael's church at the same location.
Having suffered severe damage during the November bombing , the church was restored in It was not until the early s that the stucco-work was restored. The spire which lost its steeple top during the wartime bombing is situated further north next to the former convent. Across the way is Altheimer Eck shown then and now.
His works can be found throughout Munich and this site. In July , Heydrich's counterintelligence service grew into an effective machine of terror and intimidation. With Hitler agitating for absolute power in Germany, Himmler and Heydrich wished to control the political police forces of all 17 German states, and they began with the state of Bavaria.
In , Heydrich gathered some of his men from the SD and together they stormed this building and took over the police using intimidation tactics. Himmler became commander of the Bavarian political police with Heydrich as his deputy. In a long series of closed-door sessions, Heydrich subjected each officer to a gruelling interrogation on his methods and policies before calling the officers back and telling them one at a time that they would retain their jobs — as members of the SD.
The officers were vastly relieved, assuring Heydrich that they were ready to serve without reservation. In one move, he had converted them from enemies to allies. In his funeral eulogy for Heydrich in , Himmler stated. In April it was revealed that the star, Horst Tappert, had joined the infamous 3. This process involved the transfer of Jewish property into "Aryan" hands in order to "de-Jew the economy".
The process started in in with so-called "voluntary" transfers of Jewish property and ended with the Holocaust. At first the destitution of Jewish victims was concealed under a veneer of legality before property was more openly confiscated. In both cases, aryanisation corresponded to Nazi policy and was defined, supported and enforced by Germany's legal and financial bureaucracy.
Before Hitler came to power Jews owned , businesses in Germany. By , boycotts, intimidation, forced sales and restrictions on professions had largely forced Jews out of economic life. Of the 50, Jewish-owned stores that existed in , only 9, remained in The Nazi authorities were quite sensitive to public opinion, and responded to public disquiet over Nazi policy towards the Catholic Church, for instance, by moderating policy.
Similarly, after the initial failure of the economic boycott in April , Nazi policy on Jews was ratcheted up gradually with one eye to public reactions. The fact that the authorities nevertheless continued increasing the level of persecution of Jews indicates both the centrality of antisemitism to Nazi ideology, but also the relative apathy with which non-Jewish Germans regarded the fate of their Jewish fellow citizens.
There was simply not the same degree of outrage and resistance that there was on other issues. Speier shoe shop was attacked during Kristallnacht. Compared with how it appeared November 10, the building has completely changed due to the post-war reconstruction of central Munich but it still sells shoes.
They were forbidden to visit theatres, cinemas, restaurants, museums or parks. Their driving licences were withdrawn, their telephones were cut off and they were forbidden to keep pets or use public transport. However, starting in November , close to three thousand citizens of Munich were deported to Kaunas, Piaski, Auschwitz and Theresienstadt, where they were murdered. The now-gone Cafe Karlsthor which Hitler would once frequent.
Hitler driven through Karlstor after return of Memel, March 26, The photo on the left shows it during the Tag der Deutschen Kunst of June 10, and the right showing Germans being marched into captivity after the war. Hitler's supposed painting of the monument with what was left of it after the war. A brownshirt preventing anyone from entering the offices of Jewish lawyers Dr. Erlanger, Ludwiger Erlanger, and Dr.
Adolf Mayer with stickers reading "Jude! Many Jewish shops had closed for the day anyway. People behaved in a variety of fashions. There was almost a holiday mood in some busy shopping streets, as crowds gathered to see what was happening.
Groups of people discussed busy shopping streets, as crowds gathered to see what was happening.