Imperial Cleaning

Electromagnetic Coil Gun Project

Lower gain may be achieved by increasing the 10 ohm resistor if the circuit is being overloaded by large signals but a shorter antenna is usually the best approach.

3D Printer RG04

Three Phase Transmission Simulation

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Arizona - Advanced Technologies Group S. A quick test is to just measure the DCR of the meter coil. A more accurate test is to actually measure how much current is required for a full scale indication. An adjustable low-level dc voltage is connected in series with a 1K ohm resistor, a current meter and the meter under test.

The dc voltage is adjusted until the meter under test shows a full scale indication. The current meter will now show how much current is needed for full scale deflection on the meter under test.

In this case, it is 4. Linearity can also be checked at half-scale, in this meter it was 2. The Navigator had been in storage in the upstairs lab which is a stable environment with no extremes of any sort. In my research before actually performing the Ranger meter installation, I thought I'd test the original iron-vane meter.

A measurement of the coil showed no continuity at the terminals. I had run into this problem once before when I first got the Navigator. At that time, loosening the terminal nuts and retightening them got the meter functional. This time, no amount of loosening and tightening helped. The meter coil was disconnected from the terminals. There is no repairing the original meter. It can't be taken apart since the plastic cover is glued to the back and any stress on the plastic results in cracks.

Better to leave the original meter in good cosmetic condition albeit non-functional since I was planning on installing the Ranger meter anyway. These are two different types of meters that have different FS indications and FS current requirements.

This will require re-calculating the shunt values needed for the Ranger meter to accurately read PA grid current and PA plate current in the Navigator. Additionally, the Ranger meter isn't exactly a perfect replacement fit.

The original Navigator meter requires a 2" diameter hole while the Ranger meter requires a 2. The original Navigator meter was mounted using a bracket that attached to the back of the meter and pushed against the back of the front panel to hold the meter secure. The Ranger meter mounts conventionally using four studs that use nuts and washers to secure the meter to the panel. This means some modification to the front panel is necessary.

Fortunately, if for some reason the original Navigator meter was to be re-installed, the modified larger clearance hole and the four mounting holes are covered up by the overall size of the original meter. Originality versus Cool Functionality - Anyone who reads any of my articles knows I'm a serious advocate for strict originality. How could I actually want to modify a rarely encountered transmitter to the point where I'd actually be "cutting and hacking?

However, that's just how BAD the original Navigator meter is. I would think that the E. Johnson decision to use the iron-vane meter was based on keeping costs low so the Navigator would be reasonably priced it really wasn't. The Ranger meter is a genuine "Johnson" part and even has the Viking head on the scale.

Additionally, it is an illuminated meter the original iron vane meter isn't. So, my argument for performing this modification is "Johnson would have liked to have built the Navigator this way but it would have cost a lot more and sales would have been even less than they were! Test - Always a good idea. Make sure your modifications are actually going to function correctly.

In this case, the modification was to the shunts used in the Navigator. We don't really need to know what the original iron vane meter required since it was now non-functional. So, if your Navigator has a bad original meter or some sort of replacement meter and you want to install a Viking Ranger meter, you'll need to calculate the shunts. An accurate digital current and ohm meter that will read low value ohms and milliamperes accurately helps in final accuracy of the shunt calculation and resistor selection.

I installed a 5. Although the original meter didn't require a shunt, the Meter switch has an extra unused pin pin 9 that can be used for a grid current shunt resistor connection into the circuit. During testing I wanted to double-check the accuracy of the Ranger meter and the shunts. I did this by using an accurate current meter installed directly into the grid circuit. I adjusted the Navigator to show 4mA of grid current.

I then connected the Ranger meter which showed 2. A slightly higher shunt resistance was needed so I installed a 6. I did the same with the plate current shunt and ended up with 1. As to why the actual shunt values were slightly different from the calculated values was probably due to the meter I used to measure the Ranger meter coil resistance.

I really needed a digital meter that was capable of measuring "low ohms" accurately which I didn't have. Also, the actual FS current for the meter was 4. With these two changes my calculations would have probably been accurate. As it was, I got close and then "trimmed" the values to have the Ranger meter read accurately by comparison with a known accurate current meter. Trying to do sheet metal work with the panel mounted to the chassis will result in difficulty getting an accurate fit.

It's better to entirely remove the front panel so you can rework the meter hole neatly and drill the four mounting holes precisely. The mounting holes were drilled. See photo below for the appearance of this "hand fitting" job. Mounting the Meter - When mounted in the Ranger, the meter had a full metal rear cover that provided shielding and mounting for the chokes, bypass capacitors and lamp socket mounting. The meter cover mounted via the two meter studs using various insulator washers and nuts.

The meter itself mounts to the front panel using the four studs with lock washers and nuts. Then the meter cover shield mounts to the meter studs and has its flex fingers pushed against the inside of the front panel to provide a chassis ground connection.

The lamp socket "snaps" into the hole provided and this has the lamp placed the proper distance from the meter scale for full illumination. Meter Cover Shield Modification - To install the rear meter cover in the Navigator requires a clearance hole be cut in the bottom of the cover. This is necessary because of the proximity of the Grid-Plate slide switch directly below the meter. The opening width has to be 1.

If carefully executed, the opening looks stock. Mounting the cover requires an insulating washer on the inside and on the outside of each stud.

I used the type of insulating washer that has a molded shoulder that provides insulation of the stud through the hole in the cover. See photo to the right. Connecting the Meter - Each meter connection is filtered with a choke and bypass capacitor.

The meter studs have terminal solder lugs and the wires from these connect directly to the Grid-Plate slide switch. The meter lamp choke filter is connected to the 6. The finished Johnson Ranger meter installation is shown in the photo to the right. Keying Adjustment - R-9 adjusts the keying circuit to produce a "shaped" wave envelope that has a somewhat slow start and finish to the pattern.

This reduces "clicks" that are sometimes heard with CW transmitters. The procedure is to adjust R-9 for full "on" keying and then adjust in the opposite direction until the keying just turns "off. I adjusted by listening to the keying with the Navigator on the dummy load and listening on a RA receiver. I found the best sounding keying was actually quite a bit farther into the pot rotation rather than just "slightly.

The Navigator was rated at 40 watts input power so the 25 watts equates to about On CW, 25 watts output power is sufficient for communications provided a decent antenna is used. I used my regular ham antenna, a ' center-fed inverted-vee fed with 94' of ladder line. When used on 40M this antenna becomes "two half-waves in-phase" and begins to exhibit a little gain - not much, The top scale is 0 to mA and used for plate current. The middle scale is used for 0 to 10mA grid current.

The company produced mostly ham transmitters. Eldico is mainly known for the Collins S-line "clones" they built in the lates. These initially were part of a military second-source contract between Eldico and the military, however Eldico then decided to also sell the "clones" directly to the general public. That Eldico was using the S-line clones to apparently compete with Collins upset that company, who then pressured Eldico to stop production of the clones.

However many examples were sold and they are still relatively easy to find. The SSBF came out in It was a balanced modulator-crystal filter ssb supression type transmitter that used in the final PA.

The transmitter covered 80M thru 10M with 10M covered in three individual bands. The circuit uses 22 tubes including a 1CP1 1" diameter CRT that is used to provide a trapezoid pattern for monitoring transmitted audio quality. Only one sideband could be transmitted in the AM mode. Not too many SSBF were produced. Estimates are around to units were produced. The SSBF shown is serial number I also have a "parts set" SSBF with the serial number Eldico also produced a linear amplifier, the SSB Those of us who were teenagers in "the sixties" and were also hams or studying to become hams often looked through the ARRL Radio Amateur's Handbooks.

Some of us had the latest Handbook, others like me would check older Handbooks out of the local library to look through the projects, advertisements and, From the Handbook up to the Handbook, the "top of the line" homebrew receiver project was the "DCS The receiver used plug-in coils to eliminate complicated bandswitching and reduce losses that might otherwise be encountered with having all of the coils present under the chassis.

The plug-in coil design simplified a portion of what was already a fairly complex receiver. The first conversion was at a fairly high frequency of kc while the second conversion was very low at 50kc. The very low 50kc IF was popular in the s as it provided excellent selectivity. The second conversion oscillator also used a surplus FT crystal operating at kc. Four positions of selectivity were part of the circuit with the bandwidth determined by fixed capacitors.

The detector was a standard envelope diode detector but the BFO injection was robust so SSB signals could be demodulated easily. Audio output was either a headset using the phones jack on the front panel or 3. The project in the Handbook shows the receiver built with many National Company parts, J. Miller coils and a large Bud Industries cabinet. The build-concept was to use easy-to-obtain parts at the time they were easy to obtain, Almost everything could be ordered from any of the large catalog suppliers like Allied, B-A or Lafayette.

This DCS was constructed using almost all of the recommended manufacterer parts and therefore is very close in appearance to the project receiver shown in the ARRL HB. Many electronic "kits" or less complicated homebrew projects were often built by beginners with no electronic assembly experience. A close inspection of the soldering quality is generally a clue that indicates the level of experience of the builder.

Overall this DCS receiver looked like a very talented and experienced builder had performed the construction. However, appearance and functionality don't necessarily relate to each other. As found, this DCS was non-functional. It was in very good cosmetic condition although very dirty and obviously contaminated with some kind of white residue that adhered to mostly the plastic items.

I decided to go ahead and do the preliminaries before any documentation arrived. One shorted 6U8A tube was found with all other tubes checking out in good condition. The power supply filter capacitor was reformed but, although not shorted, it didn't filter very well either. A couple of "piggy-backed" electrolytics got the hum down enough to proceed. Starting at the audio circuitry, I had output with a hz signal injected to the grid of the 6AQ5.

I injected a modulated 50kc signal at the grids of the IF amplifier tubes and also had audio through to the speaker.

Injecting a kc signal into the Mixer stage also produced a speaker response but nothing could be heard with the signal generator connected to the antenna. Further testing showed that the first conversion oscillator wasn't functional. I checked the oscillator plug-in coil and noticed that the trimmer capacitor air variable was shorted.

The type of trimmer used the hex collar to secure the rotor shaft. The hex collar had come loose and dropped the rotor and that was shorting the trimmer.

I repaired the hex collar sweat soldered the hex collar in position and now the oscillator seemed to be somewhat functional. There now was "tunable" noise although not anything like 40M signals.

At this point, my HB was going to be delivered the next day, so I stopped troubleshooting since more information in the form of the schematic and the HB write-up would be immensely helpful. By this time, I had discovered that the Crystal Calibrator had never been functional since there was no connection to the chassis. I had also discovered two unsoldered joints, one on the first conversion oscillator coil pin and one on the antenna coil pin. Although the soldering looked fine as far as quality, more problems were discovered as troubleshooting proceeded.

It was beginning to look like this DCS was never totally completed and, positively, it was never functional. The lack of any dial frequency nomenclature was one clue that no calibration took place.

The lack of a chassis connection for the kc calibration oscillator was another indication. Once I got the receiver somewhat functional, I found that it had never been aligned. The 50kc IF was resonate at around 55kc which was probably where the slugs were set from J. The S-meter was wired backwards.

The Audio Gain control didn't have a connection to chassis and ran "full on" until corrected. Although the dial tuning was loaded with "birdies" it did tune in a couple of SW BC stations - only they were around 9. This problem was caused by the LO coil being wired incorrectly inside the coil form. The non-functional BFO was caused by the BFO coil being wired with the grid side being connected to the rotor of the BFO tuning condenser that was also physically connected to chassis.

Rewiring the tuning condenser corrected the problem and got the BFO working. The second kc IF coil L5 wouldn't adjust. Noisy operation of the kc IF was caused by an unsoldered bypass capacitor.

Finding each of these problems resulted in the DCS working better and better with many 40M signals now being received. This DCS only had one set of coils with it, They were for 40M. Tracking is set at the high end of the band with the LO and Mixer trimmers. The low end "spread" is set by "pushing turns" on the coils.

Each set of coils would be different and dependent on how the coil was wound by the builder. I had to "push" the LO winds closer together to get the 40M band to track from 7. This allows a little tuning above and below the ham band for checking other types of signals.

I checked my junk boxes and found two blank polystyrene coil forms, a four pin and a five pin. I needed one more five pin. I still have to wind the Antenna coil for 80M. If more of the clear polystyrene coil forms are found, I would then next wind a set for 20M. When I have the 40M and the 80M coil sets complete, I'll add calibration to the National tuning dial. Improvements to the DCS could be some additional shielding and better filtering on the power supply.

A bottom cover would probably help a lot. If the receiver is installed in a cabinet then the chassis should be bolted to the cabinet so that it provides the bottom shielding. This set-up does result in noticeable hum. The HB article recommended an angle aluminum extrusion be mounted to the top of the chassis to "stiffen" it.

This particular DCS doesn't have that installed but I think it would help to improve stability if it were installed. The circuit operates around a T Exciter that is used to drive a pair of tubes in parallel for the PA. The modulator is a pair of tubes in push-pull. The power output is 90 watts on CW and 70 watts carrier power on AM.

The T Exciter tunes continuously from 1. It is possible to tune 30M while in the 40M band position. The speech amplifier is a "classic audio design" and utilizes a driver transformer from a DX and a military transmitter modulation transformer.

Both the modulator and the PA are located in a shielded compartment on the left side of the transmitter. The T Exciter is located on the right side and the speech amp is located under the T exciter.

The is fairly expensive and difficult to find so John modified the Exciter to use a tube for the output. The power supplies are located directly behind the T Exciter on the right-rear side of the transmitter. Complete T-R control is provided with PTT relays that includes a receiver remote standby output and antenna input for the receiver. The microphone input uses a PL type of connection. The CW key uses the same input but only the tip and shell are utilized for the key connections keys the PTT line.

The panel is a standard 19" x Weight is approximately 80 pounds. The AM is shown in the photo above left setting on its "roll-around" stand. This eases the problem of finding a bench location for the transmitter since it has its own mobile-stand. Although the case is molded plastic, the inside of the case is sprayed with a conductive metal coating. When the top is mounted with its eight screws complete shielding is provided.

In , John revised the AM design with special attention to achieving good quality audio in the speech amplifier. A clipper circuit was removed and the speech amplifier rebuilt to provide natural sounding voice reproduction while maintaining a proper bass roll-off that would allow for good copy in poor conditions. A second hi-level jack was added to allow a method to input recorded material to drive the audio system.

A second fan was added to keep the power transformer cool. The meter was replaced with an "easy-to-read" white scale original was a black scale unit. Unlike most homebrew rigs, the documentation on this transmitter is impressive.

John's manual is thorough in explaining design, intended performance, set up and operation. Plus full schematics, photographs and tube specs are provided. Its performance is top-notch and it always garners great audio reports.

I thought the Racal would work well with John's transmitter and it even had a similar look to the AM with both units having light colored panels, similar type knobs and the same dimensions. Location it the upstairs radio room where the transmitter runs 70 watts of carrier power output to a ' CF Inv-Vee antenna.

Moore - Undoubtedly the best reference book on tube-type superheterodyne communications receivers. History of receivers and the companies along with circuit description and photos of each receiver. Peugeot wasted spark coil Facet aftermarket part Ignition module: Bosch 0 Transpo aftermarket part Dwell settings: Spark output "inverted" Dwell control with 5ms cranking, 4ms running and a 0.

Be sure to use code i6 or newer. The code acts as a front end ahead of the normal MegasquirtnSpark system. When the tooth number matches a predefined trigger position it executes the rest of the code.

The first tooth or the second missing tooth detected after the first missing tooth is Tooth 1. The first missing tooth is tooth Zero. A second set of trigger values can be used to define " Trigger Return " positions that set the cranking timing. It is usually set up for the cranking angle when there are enough teeth.

So if you have a or , etc, set the Trig Return tooth thats at 10deg BTDC, this is usually the firing angle at cranking. So in the example below tooth 18 and 48 would be aligned with the sensor at 12deg BTDC this is as close as you can get to 10 on a If your fitted the wheel your self then ensure this angle is correct, if not alter it so it is, it may be deg out if you fitted the wheel, so alter the value.

This should be easy enough to see or to work out using a timing light and crank the engine, if its sparking at 8deg then enter 8, etc! Example setup for COP with cam wheel and non-missing tooth crank wheel. The cam wheel must have a single trigger per degrees of the crank deg of the cam.

The crank wheel must have at least half as many teeth as the number of cylinders. As this is a 4cyl there are four outer holes.

The single hole is the 2nd trigger "reset" pulse. The Second Input option is a variation of the multi-tooth or generic wheel for ignition timing input.

Normally a multi-toothed wheel or generic has a missing or filled in tooth to provide a reference point. Where the timing wheel has all of its teeth, a second input every crankshaft revolution can provide the same timing capability as a missing or filled in tooth. The next tooth on the main toothed wheel after the second trigger is defined as tooth 1.

All the other features and functions of the toothed wheel software is available, including wasted spark for distributor-less installations. For some instances of Nippondenso electrical systems, Mazda and Toyota the second input allows the use of the OEM distributor, cam position sensors without having to mechanically modify anything. These distributors have a 24 tooth wheel which rotates at half crankshaft speed. Either a single second pickup and wheel with 2 teeth, or two pick-ups with a single tooth can be used as a second input into MSnS.

The second input is made with a duplicate conditioner and components to replicate the tachometer input but this is connected directly to Pin 11 of U1.

Note as this pin is also an output in some configurations, it is strongly recommended you include a 1k resistor in series with Pin This will protect both U1 and the VR conditioner from overloading each other if U1 Pin 11 is set as an output. A daughter-board will be required to mount these components with a flying wire soldered directly to Pin Please see the Basic Config manual for more. Please note that these will need to be tuned, see the Dwell section of this manual.

It could run a COP setup 4 cy or a wasted spark 4cy. It can function with just a variable reluctor crank position sensor VR sensor and a tooth wheel means '36 teeth minus one', and refers to 36 evenly spaced teeth, one of which has been removed. Because it doesn't need a camshaft position sensor, EDIS is a particularly easy way to replace distributor ignitions when retrofitting older engines with a modern computer programmable ignition, but we now recommend directly driving the coil packs from the MS ECU using the VB FET's.

If you alread have an EDIS setup and want to use it then these are the mods for it:. Finding Edis 4 in North America: You can tell the engine because it has a tubular aluminium NOT cast inlet manifold. The bolts are 10mm AF. You are advised to remove the fuse box first for easier access. Cut off as much as the harness as you can. Looking toward the passenger side end of the engine, the VR sensor is above and to the left of the end of the crankshaft.

The easiest way to access the sensor is to remove the front wheel if it's not already removed , lie on your back, and reach up from the bottom to access the sensor mounting bolts. The bolts are either small metric or star bit. Once it's off, the cable is most easily cut from the top.

The crank pulley bolt is 19mm. You will need to stop engine from turning, various methods have been suggested. Click on images for a larger picture. Finding Edis in Europe: Known part numbers are: Location of the VR sensor varies. On the small CVH engines it pokes through the rear flange of the engine towards the flywheel.

Duratec V6 Mondeo is mounted near the front, it also has a cam sensor that works too. The mounting bolts are either small metric or star bit. Do not confuse with the ESC II hybrid module which has a vacuum tube and comes on the carb model cars. There is also an aluminium one to avoid as well. Click to enlarge picture of plastic hybrid module to avoid. Not known to have been installed on any European built vehicles.

Your best bet is either to import a module from the USA or buy new. I would suggest buying the other bits locally. For connectors try one off another car if all the wires are in use or one off an ESC module. The number of wires used in the connector varies so check they are all there! For a scrap yard trigger disc, remove from 1. If you are after a pressed steel disc, try part no. These 4cyl engines have 4 post coils. The V6 Mondeo has a 6 post coil.

Carb Fiesta Valentia engines have the coil pack on the rear of the block. Mondeo Zetec have the coil pack beside the rocker cover. The HT leads are usually very short, but the ends can be removed with some lubricant and re-used on new leads by re-crimping them with a pair of pliers.

It can be handy to get 2 sets so you can practice a little first. Assuming you have obtained a suitable wheel, you need to establish the correct relationship between the VR sensor and disc. There are two methods to visualise the relationship with the same outcome.

Mount the VR sensor wherever is convenient and mount trigger disc so that the centre of the sensor aligns with the centre of the missing tooth. Count from missing tooth in opposite direction of rotation This will put the centre of a tooth central to the sensor.

Direction of rotation for this example is Anti-Clockwise for below. Direction of rotation for this example is Clockwise for below. To test this alignment it is best to run the EDIS in limp home mode.

Fit your strobe onto no. Ensure EDIS still has power and crank your engine, check that the timing is exactly 10deg. If not, adjust your sensor until it is. Don't forget to reconnect the plug when done!

Multi-spark is currently under test with MSnS-extra firmware. Turn megasquirt off then on. The patent states rpm. The code is only designed for "push start" modules which are claimed to be grey in colour. Computer controlled dwell modules are black. Here is the pinout of a typical dizzy mounted module, consult you Haynes manual if necessary.

My suggestion to users is to get your car running fuel only before throwing timing into the mix. This way you will prove that you can idle with Megasquirt before adding timing control.

Board Mods - input side The input side on the MS board is fairly straightforward, most boards will need no changes. If you are using an aftermarket spark box like MSD you can skip the special circuit and use a regular "LED17" spark output.

When using the TFI module to drive the coil carry out the following: Set the Codebase and Outputs page as follows:. Set the Trigger Angle to 10 degrees and spark output inverted to Yes. Set the Dwell to: Most of the following explanation comes from " WopOnTour " - many thanks!! Please read his full description HERE. This will NOT work for 3. So you may need to eliminate Bypass altogether and run "cranking EST".

Thumb nails, click to enlarge. The injection events shown every degrees is just for startup on the stock GM ECM, after rpm is achieved the simultaneous injection event occurs once per crankshaft revolution or twice per cycle in MS terms. It's not mandatory to use Saturn Parts here. Most of the following explanation comes from "WopOnTour" - many thanks!! The scope waveforms and patterns look very promising.

Here's what I have learned so far although keep in mind this was done in a mock-up state only and NOT on a running engine. In Spark Settings ensure " Trigger Angle " is set to 70 deg.

Whilst it is possible to do it with a cam sensor, it is easiest to do it with 2 sensors, one on the crank and the other driven off the cam. The first sensor off the crank needs to be at least 5 teeth equally spaced, a wheel would be best and shouldn't be too hard as most Audi's use these anyhow. The second sensor needs to pick up 1 pulse per cam revolution. This would need a second sensor input circuit wired to Pin11 of U1, the circuit would depend on the type of sensor used, but all circuits will need the opto-isolator between the sensor and Pin11 of U1.

There are two 'sets' or 'rings' of holes in the optical CAS. Likewise the inner ring with only one hole is also read by an optical sensor, sent to the ECU and is referred to as the CMP signal.

It is felt that it is easier to get running using the original ignitors so this is the recommended and tested method.

The Secondary Coil