While Amsterdam does feature in his work, it does so relatively rarely given that Ruisdael lived there for over 25 years. It does feature in his only known architectural subject, a drawing of the interior of the Old Church ,  as well as in views of the Dam, and the Panoramic view of the Amstel looking toward Amsterdam , one of Ruisdael's last paintings. Firstly, four members of the Ruysdael family were landscapists with similar signatures, some of which were later fraudulently altered into Jacob's.
This typically reads "JvRuisdael" or the monogram "JVR",   sometimes using a small italic 's' and sometimes a Gothic long 's', such as on Landscape with Waterfall. Ruisdael has shaped landscape painting traditions from the English Romantics to the Barbizon school in France, and the Hudson River School in the US, as well as generations of Dutch landscape artists.
Turner , and John Constable. Gainsborough drew, in black chalk and grey wash, a replica of a Ruisdael in the s—now both paintings are housed in the Louvre in Paris. In the 19th century, Vincent van Gogh acknowledged Ruisdael as a major influence, calling him sublime, but at the same time saying it would be a mistake to try to copy him.
Among art historians and critics, Ruisdael's reputation has had its ups and downs over the centuries. The first account, in , is from Houbraken, who waxed lyrical over the technical mastery which allowed Ruisdael to realistically depict falling water and the sea. In , Henry Fuseli , professor at the Royal Academy, expressed his contempt for the entire Dutch School of Landscape, dismissing it as no more than a "transcript of the spot", a mere "enumeration of hill and dale, clumps of trees".
More recent art historians have rated Ruisdael highly. Kenneth Clark described him as "the greatest master of the natural vision before Constable". Januszczak does not consider Ruisdael the greatest landscape artist of all time, but is especially impressed by his works as a teenager: Ruisdael is now seen as the leading artist of the "classical" phase in Dutch landscape art, which built upon the realism of the previous "tonal" phase.
The tonal phase suggested atmosphere through the use of tonality, while the classical phase strived for a more grandiose effect, with paintings built up through a serious of vigorous contrasts of solid form against the sky, and of light against shade, with a tree, animal, or windmill often singled out. Although many of Ruisdael's works were on show in the Art Treasures Exhibition, Manchester , and various other grand exhibitions across the world since, it was not until that an exhibition was solely dedicated to Ruisdael.
Over fifty paintings and thirty-five drawings and etchings were exhibited, first at the Mauritshuis in The Hague , then, in , at the Fogg Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
There are no 17th-century documents to indicate, either at first or second hand, what Ruisdael intended to convey through his art. At one end of the spectrum is Henry Fuseli, who contends they have no meaning at all, and are simply a depiction of nature. In the middle of the spectrum are scholars such as E. John Walford, who sees the works as "not so much bearers of narrative or emblematic meanings but rather as images reflecting the fact that the visible world was essentially perceived as manifesting inherent spiritual significance".
The intention is spiritual, not moral. Andrew Graham-Dixon asserts all Dutch Golden Age landscapists could not help but search everywhere for meaning. He says of the windmill in The Windmill at Wijk bij Duurstede that it symbolises "the sheer hard work needed to keep Holland above water and to safeguard the future of the nation's children". The symmetries in the landscapes are "reminders to fellow citizens always to remain on the straight and narrow". Ruisdaels are scattered across collections globally, both private and institutional.
The most notable collections are at the National Gallery in London, which holds twenty paintings;  the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, which holds sixteen paintings;  and the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, which holds nine. Paul Getty Museum in California has three. On occasion a Ruisdael changes hands. No collection holds a print of each of the thirteen etchings. Of the five unique prints, the British Museum holds two, two are in the Albertina in Vienna, and one is in Amsterdam.
Ruisdael and his art should not be considered apart from the context of the incredible wealth and significant changes to the land that occurred during the Dutch Golden Age. In his study on 17th-century Dutch art and culture, Simon Schama remarks that "it can never be overemphasized that the period between and , when the political identity of an independent Netherlands nation was being established, was also a time of dramatic physical alteration of its landscape".
He states that landscape painting does conform to Calvin's requirement that only what is visible may be depicted in art, and that landscape paintings such as those of Ruisdael have an epistemological value which provides further support for their use within Reformed Churches.
The art historian Yuri Kuznetsov places Ruisdael's art in the context of the war of independence against Spain. Dutch landscape painters "were called upon to make a portrait of their homeland, twice rewon by the Dutch people — first from the sea and later from foreign invaders".
As well, ordinary middle class Dutch people began buying art for the first time, creating a high demand for paintings of all kinds. In Ruisdael's case, it is not known whether he kept stock to sell directly to customers, or sold his work through dealers, or both.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Dutch landscape painter and engraver c. Windmill at Wijk bij Duurstede c. A View of Egmond aan Zee c. A View of Burg Bentheim c. List of paintings by Jacob van Ruisdael. Landscape with Windmills near Haarlem by Jacob van Ruisdael. Landscape with Windmills near Haarlem by John Constable. In his treatise on painting, painter-writer Samuel van Hoogstraten reserved top spot in the hierarchy of genres for history painting.
Two 19th-century sculptures, one on the outside wall of the Hamburger Kunsthalle built in ,  and one inside the Louvre made by Louis-Denis Caillouette in ,  are also not traceable back to a source. It is also the only one in which his landscape is the background to the work of another artist. Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 1 January Archived from the original on 4 January Retrieved 3 January National Gallery of Art. Archived from the original on 5 January Netherlands Institute for Art History.
Van der Krogt websites. Archived from the original on 6 January Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 21 December Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 10 January Retrieved 25 September Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 11 January Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 20 October Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 8 September Archived from the original on 15 January Archived from the original on 22 January Archived from the original on 18 January Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 9 September Archived from the original on 19 January Retrieved 18 November Archived from the original on 12 January Art of the Dutch Golden Age.
There are some areas where the paint has rubbed off. No chips, cracks, scratches or repairs. This pug has some light scratches, small scuffs on left cheek and both hips and a firing crack under the right foreleg. The outer gold is worn off the bells — almost always the case in antique pugs since gold was cold painted after firing. When I got him home I examined him with a loop and black light. There is a professional repair in the tail area seen with black light.
I can only see the small defect shown in my photo with my naked eye. There are roughened areas at the bottom of both pupils. I believe there were defects there which were painted over but they do not show by black light — so not sure. These flaws are reflected in the low price for this rare model. He has the usual loss of most of the gold paint from the bells though most remains on collar and bow.
Gold was cold painted after firing so it rubs off easily. On the plus side there are no repairs to bells or bow, no firing cracks and none of the light scratches and scrapes usually present.
No cracks, chips or repairs. Brown pug minus base: White pug minus base: A custom made Pearce Pug masterpiece, this comes from my personal collection. Despite the scene of chaos, you'll note that three of the pugs are surprisingly well behaved. Only one devilish little fellow undoubtedly related to our Jade has caused all that chaos. He has systematically knocked a Raisin Cake, Cherry topped tarts and some of the scones off of the table top for his friends to sample. He is just about to slide off another plate with a tart on it.
I hate to see what it looks like when the Tier Cake tumbles off! Eve molds each of her pugs individually by hand from hard paste porcelain and hand paints them. Her hallmark can be seen under the table cloth at the back. There is a felt pad on the bottom to prevent scratching. Give yourself a one-of-a-kind Birthday Present!
Meissen pugs, though beautifully molded and decorated, are not known for their personality. This medium sized fellow is an exception. He has a very expressive face. He is looking up at his master or mistress and either praying for a treat or praying that he is not going to get in trouble for the table lamp he knocked over. The German Meissen Porcelain Company was the first European company to develop the method for making hard paste porcelain He wears the classic light blue colored collar bearing five gold bells.
The dark photo of his flank shows the fine coat of hair that Meissen incorporates into the glaze. My list only goes to so it was some year between then and when I purchased him from a Meissen dealer. Pug figurines were an early favorite of the Saxony upper class. That, along with their quality, is what makes them among the most prized porcelain pugs.
That history shows that our favorite breed has been popular and has changed little over the last years. Photo from book included. He dates them circa Other breeds soon followed. Unlike most Staffordshire dogs, these pugs are beautifully molded with great detail.
They sport golden collars and gold highlights in the grass between their legs. These are the only Staffordshire Pugs with glass eyes. Though these models come from the same or similar molds their coloring varies from light tan, as seen in the book photo, to dark gray-brown like these two.
If you particularly like Black Pugs than these are the Staffordshire Pugs for you! They become lovely in our eyes. This one sports a collar and bow decorated with blue stripes along with 5 bells. They were actually best known for the Fairing pieces they made for prizes at English Country Fairs. Their figurines of all types were made for the common folk and were inexpensive so most were not hallmarked. They commonly have firing flaws along with the ravages of old age.
This old gal has survived relatively well. This little Pug Biker c. I like his attitude! He's probably looking for a Pug Biker Babe to occupy that seat behind his. It's a pretty fancy bike with the motor between the petals and wheels that turn. This was made by the F.
Take a ride with this cutie! Vintage Meissen Porcelain Pug Dog: Meissen Porcelain Pugs have the most lovely expression on their faces and their faces have the most lovely decoration. The eyes are molded as well as colored. You can also see why they remain the most valued and most valuable of porcelain pugs. This large Meissen Male Pug has the longer legs and muzzle, and cropped ears typical of pre-Victorian pugs. His coat has a faint fawn tinge and the hairs of his coat can be seen in his glaze — neither of which I am able to capture in my photos.
He wears a blue collar with five golden bells. He has the famous Meissen crossed swords trademark of a type used since The three number model means he was made before when Meissen changed to five number models. Since he is relatively old for the Meissen Pugs I sell, I checked him with a black light and there are no repairs or defects.
It is very difficult to come by the larger of the Meissen Pugs. Don't pass up this opportunity! This is the life! Our handsome Vintage Vienna Bronze Pug is being pushed on his sled by a poodle.
You can tell by the detail in the sculpting of the pug, poodle and sled that this is an early 20th Century Vienna Bronze as opposed to the more mass produced new ones. And isn't it clever that I was able to photograph them sledding through snow banks here in Texas? The pug is holding a red rope attached to the front of the sled, probably helping to steady him as he sits so upright.
Let this pug ride on your pug shelf! But this one is extra special! The Spitz is the one who nods, you can see the head removed among my photos. It has a weighted bottom allowing it to nod on a metal rod through the neck. I have one in my personal collection, but beyond that this is only the second I have ever seen. Both dogs are very nicely molded. The Pug appears to be looking up at the Spitz, probably in awe about how he can nod! They are slip cast and the soft bisque surface is obtained by only giving it one final firing.
There is the number "3" marked inside the open base. I hope you take this opportunity to add this relatively rare piece, in wonderful condition, to your pug collection. They are similar to those popularized by Beau Brummel. The hallmark has the company name around a shield with a balance scale in it. This model, with picture and number, can be seen in the Meriden Company catalog.
I saw a picture of the page. Note how he has the longer muzzle and legs, as opposed to our modern pugs, and the cropped ears — all typical of the early Victorian Pug. He has a tiny padlock hanging from his collar. Minimal wear to the silver plate. No breaks or repairs. From my personal collection these darling Dancing Pugs were among my first Vienna Bronze purchases.
It looks like he is whispering something in her ear and she has a very surprised look on her face. Might he be purposing marriage?